Virology: Intro & DNA Viruses Flashcards Preview

First Aid: Microbiology > Virology: Intro & DNA Viruses > Flashcards

Flashcards in Virology: Intro & DNA Viruses Deck (42)
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1
Q

exchange of genes btwn 2 chromosomes

crossing over

A

recombination

2
Q

viruses w/ segmented genomes exchange segments

high frequency

A

reassortment

*influenza pandemics*

3
Q

1 of 2 viruses the infect the cell has a mutation

nonfunctional protein

A

complementation

*nonmutated virus complements the mutated one*

4
Q

simultaneous infections of a cell w/ 2 viruses

genome of virus A coated w/ surface proteins of B

determines tropism of hybrid virus

A

phenotypic mixing

5
Q

Vaccines

induce humoral & cell-mediated immunity

reverted to virulence rarely

A

live attenuated vaccines

6
Q

which viruses use live-attenuated vaccines

A
  • Smallpox
  • Yellow fever
  • Chickenpox
  • Sabin polio virus
  • MMR (measles, mumps, rubella)
  • Influenza
7
Q

which viruses use killed vaccines

A
  • Rabies
  • Influenza
  • Salk Polio
  • HAV
8
Q

which viruses use recombinant vaccines

A
  • HBV
  • HPV (6, 11, 16, 18)
9
Q

all DNA viruses except ___________ are dsDNA

A

Parvoviridae

10
Q

all DNA viruses are linear except……

A

circular

  • papillomavirus
  • polyomavirus
  • hepadnavirus
11
Q

all RNA viruses except _______ are ssRNA

A

Reoviridae

12
Q

positive stranded RNA viruses

A
  • retrovirus
  • togavirus
  • flavivirus
  • coronavirus
  • hepevirus
  • calicivirus
  • picornavirus
13
Q

purified nucleic acids of most __DNA & __strand __RNA viruses are infectious

A

dsDNA

(+) strand

ssRNA

14
Q

all DNA viruses replicate in the ______

*except poxvirus*

A

nucleus

15
Q

all RNA viruses replicate in the ______

*except influenza virus & retroviruses*

A

cytoplasm

16
Q

Naked (nonenveloped) viruses

A
  • Papillomavirus
  • Adenovirus
  • Parvovirus
  • Polyomavirus
  • Calicivirus
  • Picornavirus
  • Reovirus
  • Hepevirus
17
Q

DNA virus characteristics

A

HHAPPPPy viruses

  • Hepadnavirus
  • Herpesvirus
  • Adenovirs
  • Poxvirus
  • Parvovirus
  • Papillomavirus
  • Polyomavirus
18
Q

all DNA viruses are icosahedral except ______

A

pox (complex)

19
Q

acute or chronic hepatitis

A

Hepadnavirus (HBV)

20
Q

clinical diseases of Adenovirus

A
  • Febrile pharyngitis (sore throat)
  • Acute hemorrhagic cystitis
  • Pneumonia
  • Conjunctivitis (“pink eye”)
21
Q

clinical presentation of Parvovirus (B19)

A
  • Aplastic crisis in sickle cell disease
  • “slapped cheeks” rash in children
    • Erythema infectiosum (5th disease)
  • RBC destruction in fetus
    • Hydrops fetalis, death
  • Pure RBC aplasia
  • RA-like symptoms in adults
22
Q

clinical presentation of Papillomavirus (HPV)

A
  • warts (1, 2, 6, 11)
  • CIN
  • cervical cancer (16, 18)
23
Q

clinical presentation of Polyomavirus (JC virus)

A

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in HIV

24
Q

clinical presentation of Polyomavirus (BK virus)

A

transplant patients

targets kidney

25
Q

clinical presentation of Poxvirus

A
  • Smallpox
  • Cowpox
  • Molluscum contagiosum
26
Q

flesh-colored dome lesions

central umbilicated dimple

A

Molluscum contagiosum

27
Q

clinical disease of HSV-1

A
  • gingivostomatitis
  • keratoconjunctivitis
  • temporal lobe encephalitis
  • herpes labialis
28
Q

HSV-1 transmission

A

latent in trigeminal ganglia

transmission by respiratory secretions, saliva

29
Q

clinical disease of HSV-2

A
  • Herpes genitalis
  • Neonatal herpes
30
Q

HSV-2 transmission

A

latent in sacral ganglia

transmitted by sexual contact, perinatally

31
Q

clinical disease of VZV

A
  • Varicella-zoster (chickenpox, shingles)
  • Encephalitis
  • Pneumonia
  • complication: post-herpetic neuralgia
32
Q

VZV transmission

A

latent in dorsal root or trigeminal ganglia

transmitted by respiratory secretions

33
Q

mononucleosis characteristics

A

EBV

  • fever
  • hepatosplenomegaly
  • pharyngitis
  • lymphadenopathy (posterior cervical nodes)
34
Q

EBV

transmission

infection

test

A
  • respiratory secretions, saliva (“kissing disease”)
  • infects B-cells
  • (+) monospot test
35
Q

associated w/ Hodgkin lymphoma, endemic Burkitt lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma

A

EBV

36
Q

clinical disease of CMV

A
  • congenital infection
  • mononucleosis
  • pneumonia
  • retinitis
37
Q

“owl eye” inclusions

A

CMV

38
Q

CMV transmission

A

latent in mononuclear cells

congenital, transfusion, sexual contact, saliva, urine, transplant

39
Q

HHV-6

clinical presentation

transmission

A
  • Roseola
    • high fevers for several days
    • seizures
    • diffuse macular rash
  • transmitted by saliva
40
Q

**HHV-8 **

clinical presentation

patient population

A
  • Kaposi sarcoma - neoplasm of endothelial cells
  • HIV/AIDS & transplant patients
41
Q

HHV-8

what skin looks like

other organs

transmission

A
  • dark/violaceous flat & nodular skin lesions
  • endothelial growths
  • GI tract & lungs
  • transmitted by sexual contact
42
Q

HSV identification

  • skin/genitalia
  • herpes encephalitis
  • genital herpes
A

intranuclear Cowdry A inclusions

  • viral culture
  • CSF PCR
  • Tzanck test