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First Aid: Microbiology > Mycology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mycology Deck (41):
1

Systemic mycoses 

  • Histoplasmosis
  • Blastomycosis
  • Coccidioidomycosis
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis

2

Histoplasmosis location

Mississippi & Ohio River Valleys 

3

Blastomycosis location 

Mississippi River

Central America 

4

Coccidioidomycosis location

Southwestern US

California 

5

Paracoccidioidomycosis location

Latin America

6

clinical presentation of histoplasmosis 

pneumonia 

7

clinical presentation of Blastomycosis 

inflammatory lung disease

disseminates to skin & bone 

8

clinical presentation of Coccidioidomycosis 

  • pneumonia
  • meningitis
  • disseminates to bone & skin

 

9

cases increase after earthquakes 

Coccidioidomycosis 

10

histoplasmosis histology 

MΦ filled w/ histoplasma

smaller than RBC

11

blastomycosis histology 

broad based budding

same size as RBC

12

coccidioidomycosis histology 

spherule filled w/ endospores 

much larger than RBC

13

paracoccidioidomycosis histology 

budding yeast w/ "captain's wheel" formation

much larger than RBC

14

Malassezia furfur 

Tinea versicolor 

15

Tinea versicolor 

pathology

clinical presentation

  • occurs in hot/humid weather
  • degradation of lipids
  • acids damage melanocytes
  • hypo/hyper-pigmented patches

16

tinea versicolor treatment 

topical Miconazole

selenium sulfide 

17

"spaghetti & meatball appearance"

tinea versicolor 

18

Definitions

  • tinea pedis 
  • tinea cruris 
  • tinea corporis 
  • tinea capitis 
  • tinea unguium 

  • tinea pedis = foot
  • tinea cruris = groin
  • tinea corporis = ringworm (on body)
  • tinea capitis = head, scalp
  • tinea unguium = onychomycosis (fingernails) 

19

dermatophytes 

  • microsporum
  • trichophyton 
  • epidermophyton 

20

how do the other tinae clinically present?

pruritic lesions w/ central clearing (ring)

mold hyphae on KOH 

21

candida albicans clinical presentation

  • oral & esophageal thrush (immunocompromised)
  • vulvovaginitis
  • diaper rash
  • endocarditis in IV drug users
  • disseminated candidiasis
  • chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis 

22

candida albicans treatment

  • vaginal
  • oral/esophageal
  • systemic 

  • vaginal
    • topical azole
  • oral/esophageal
    • fluconazole or caspofungin
  • systemic
    • fluconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin 

23

clinical diseases of Aspergillus fumigatus 

  • invasive aspergillosis
  • allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA)
  • aspergilloma 

24

who tends to get infected w/ invasive aspergillosis 

  • immunocompromised
  • chronic granulomatous disease 

25

allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis 

  • asthma & cystic fibrosis
  • bronchiectasis & eosinophilia 

26

aspergillomas infect the __________ post ______ infection. 

lung cavities

TB

27

Aspergillus fumigatus aflatoxins

hepatocellular carcinoma 

28

aspergillus branches at a _____ degree angle

45

29

"soap bubble" lesions in brain 

Cryptococcus neoformans 

30

Cryptococcus neoformans

morphology

spread/dissemination

  • heavily encapsulated yeast (NOT dimorphic)
  • soil, pigeon droppings
  • inhalation --> hematogenous dissemination to meninges 

31

Mucormycosis 

Mucor & Rhizopus spp.

32

Mucormycosis patient population

ketoacidotic diabetic & leukemic patients 

33

mucormycosis spread 

  • excess ketone & glucose 
  • fungi proliferate in BV walls
  • penetrate cribriform plate  
  • enter brain 

34

Mucormycosis clinical presentation

  • Rhinocerebral, frontal lobe abscesses
  • headache, facial pain, black necrotic eschar on face
  • maybe CN involvement 

35

Mucormycosis treatment 

amphotericin B

36

inhaled yeast

diffuse bilateral CXR appearance 

Pneumocystis jirovecii 

37

when do you start PCP prophylaxis?

  • CD4 <200 cells/mm3 in HIV patients
    • dapsone, atovaquone
  • TMP-SMX, pentamidine 

38

diffuse interstitial pneumonia 

Pneumocystis jirovecii (PCP)

39

dimorphic, cigar-shaped budding yeast

Sporothrix schenckii 

40

How is sporothrix schenckii spread?

  • vegetation --> thorn --> spores
  • local pustule or ulcer w/ nodules along draining lymphatics
  • ascending lymphangitis 

41

Sporothrix schenckii treatment 

itraconazole, potassium iodide