Systems Flashcards Preview

First Aid: Microbiology > Systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Systems Deck (64):
1

Normal flora: dominant 

skin 

S. epidermidis 

2

Normal flora: dominant 

nose

S. epidermidis 

colonized by S. aureus 

3

Normal flora: dominant 

oropharynx 

Viridans group streptococci 

4

Normal flora: dominant 

dental plaque

S. mutans

5

Normal flora: dominant 

colon

B. fragilis > E. coli 

6

Normal flora: dominant 

vagina 

Lactobacillus

colonized by E. coli & group B strep 

7

food poisoning 

reheated rice 

B. cereus 

8

food poisoning 

improperly canned foods 

C. botulinum

9

food poisoning 

reheated meat dishes 

C. perfringens

10

food poisoning 

undercooked meat

E. coli 

O157:H7

11

food poisoning 

poultry, meat, eggs

Salmonella 

12

food poisoning 

meats. mayonnaise, custard

preformed toxin

S. aureus 

13

food poisoning 

contaminated seafood 

V. parahaemolyticus 

V. vulnificus 

14

bugs causing bloody diarrhea 

  • Campylobacter
  • E. histolytica
  • EHEC
  • EIEC
  • Salmonella
  • Shigella
  • Y. enterocolitica 

15

bugs causing watery diarrhea 

  • C. difficile
  • C. perfringens
  • ETEC
  • Protozoa 
  • V. cholerae
  • Viruses

16

common causes of pneumonia 

neonates (<4 wks)

  • Group B streptococci 
  • E. coli 

17

common causes of pneumonia 

children (4 wks - 18 yrs)

Runts May Cough Chunky Sputum 

  • Viruses (RSV)
  • Mycoplasma
  • C. trachomatis (infants - 3 yrs)
  • C. pneumoniae (school-aged children)
  • S. pneumoniae 

18

common causes of pneumonia 

adults (18-40 YO)

  • Mycoplasma
  • C. pneumoniae
  • S. pneumoniae 

19

common causes of pneumonia

adults (40-65 YO)

  • S. pneumoniae 
  • H. influenzae
  • Anaerobes
  • Viruses
  • Mycoplasma

20

common causes of pneumonia

elderly 

  • S. pneumoniae
  • Influenza virus 
  • Anaerobes
  • H. influenzae 
  • Gram-negative rods

21

pneumonia 

alcoholic/IV drug user 

  • S. pneumoniae 
  • Klebsiella
  • Staphylococcus 

22

pneumonia 

aspiration

Anaerobes

23

pneumonia 

atypical 

  • Mycoplasma
  • Legionella
  • Chlamydia 

24

pneumonia

cystic fibrosis 

  • Pseudomonas
  • S. aureus
  • S. pneumnoiae 

25

pneumonia 

immunocompromised 

  • Staphylococcus 
  • Enteric gram-negative rods 
  • Fungi
  • Viruses
  • P. jirovecii (w/ HIV)

26

pneumonia 

nosocomial 

  • Staphylococcus 
  • Pseudomonas
  • Other enteric gram negative rods 

27

pneumonia 

post-viral 

  • Staphylococcus 
  • H. influenzae 
  • S. pneumoniae 

28

common causes of meningitis 

newborn (0-6 mo)

  • Group B streptococci 
  • E. coli
  • Listeria 

29

common causes of meningitis 

children (6 mo - 6 yrs)

  • S. pneumoniae
  • N. meningitidis
  • H. influenzae type B
  • Enteroviruses

30

common causes of meningitis 

6 - 60 YO

  • S. pneumoniae 
  • N. meningitidis (#1 in teens)
  • Enteroviruses
  • HSV

31

common causes of meningitis 

60 YO+

  • S. pneumoniae 
  • Gram-negative rods 
  • Listeria 

32

CSF findings in meningitis: bacterial 

  • opening pressure
  • cell type
  • protein
  • sugar

  • increased
  • increased PMNs
  • increased
  • decreased

33

CSF findings in meningitis: fungal/TB

  • opening pressure
  • cell type
  • protein
  • sugar

  • increased
  • increased lymphocytes
  • increased
  • decreased 

34

CSF findings in meningitis: viral 

  • opening pressure
  • cell type
  • protein
  • sugar 

  • normal/increased
  • increased lymphocytes 
  • normal/increased
  • normal 

35

osteomyelitis 

assume if no other information available 

S. aureus (most common overall)

36

osteomyelitis 

sexually active 

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (rare)

septic arthritis more common 

37

osteomyelitis 

diabetics & IVDA

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Serratia 

38

osteomyelitis 

sickle cell 

Salmonella 

39

osteomyelitis 

prosthetic joint replacement 

S. aureus & S. epidermidis 

40

osteomyelitis 

vertebral involvement 

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Pott disease)

41

osteomyelitis 

cat & dog bites 

Pasteurella multocida 

42

most osteomyelitis occurs in __________

children 

43

clinical presentation of cystitis 

  • dysuria
  • frequency
  • urgency
  • suprapubic pain
  • WBCs in urine 

44

clinical presentation of pyelonephritis 

  • fever
  • chills
  • flank pain
  • costovertebral angle tenderness
  • hematuria
  • WBC casts 

45

UTI bugs 

  • Escherichia coli 
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae 
  • Serratia marcescens
  • Enterobacter cloacae 
  • Proteus mirabilis 
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa 

46

common vaginal infections

  • Bacterial vaginosis
  • Trichomoniasis
  • Candida vulvovaginitis 

47

bacterial vaginosis

signs/symptoms

lab findings 

  • no inflammation
  • thin, white discharge w/ fishy odor 
  • clue cells 
  • pH > 4.5 

48

trichomoniasis 

signs/symptoms 

lab findings 

  • inflammation
  • frothy, grey-green, foul-smelling discharge 
  • motile trichomonads 
  • pH >4.5

49

candida vulvovaginitis 

signs/symptoms 

lab findings 

  • inflammation
  • thick, white "cottage cheese" discharge
  • pseudohyphae 
  • pH normal (4.0-4.5)

50

nonspecific signs common to TORCHES infections

  • hepatosplenomegaly 
  • jaundice
  • thrombocytopenia 
  • growth retardation

51

ToRCHeS infections

  • Toxoplasma gondii
  • Rubella
  • CMV
  • HIV
  • Herpes simplex virus-2
  • Syphilis 

52

red rashes of childhood 

  • Coxsackievirus type A
  • HHV-6
  • Measles virus
  • Parvovirus B19
  • Rubella virus 
  • Streptococcus pyogenes 
  • VZV

53

rash begins at the head & moves down 

  • Measles virus
    • preceded by cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, blue white Koplik spots on buccal mucosa 
  • Rubella virus 
    • fine truncal rash 
    • postauricular lymphadenopathy 

54

vesicular rash begins on trunk 

spreads to face & extremities 

lesions of different ages 

VZV (chickenpox)

55

"slapped cheek" rash on face 

Parvovirus B19

Erythema infectiosum (5th disease)

56

sexually transmitted diseases 

  • AIDS
  • Chancroid
  • Chlamydia
  • Condylomata acuminata
  • Genital herpes
  • Gonorrhea
  • Hepatitis B
  • Lymphogranuloma venereum
  • Primary syphilis 
  • Secondary syphilis
  • Tertiary syphilis 
  • Trichomoniasis 

57

top bugs of PID

  • Chlamydia trachomatis (subacute)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae (acute) 

58

clinical presentation of PID

  • cervical motion tenderness (chandelier sign) 
  • purulent cervical discharge 

59

Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome 

  • infection of the liver capsule 
  • "violin string" adhesions of peritoneum to liver

60

nosocomial infections 

  • Candida albicans
  • CMV, RSV
  • E. coli, Proteus mirabilis 
  • HBV
  • Legionella 
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa 

61

the 2 most common causes of nosocomial infections

  • E. coli (UTI)
  • S. aureus (wound infection) 

62

bugs affecting unimmunized children 

rash

  • rubella virus
  • measles virus 

63

bugs affected unimmunized children 

meningitis 

  • H. influenzae type B
  • Poliovirus 

64

bugs affected unimmunized children

respiratory 

  • H. influenzae type B
  • Corynebacterium diphtheriae