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Flashcards in Antimicrobials Deck (111)
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1

What is the MOA of PCNs?

binds PBPs and block the transpeptidase cross-linking of peptidoglycan

Activate autolytic enzymes

2

What, generally, are the bacteria that PCNs are used to treat?

Gram positives:
-Strep
-Staph
-N Meningitidis

3

What is the major adverse reaction to PCNs?

Hypersensitivity rxns

4

How is resistance to PCNs conferred to bacteria?

Penicillinase in bacteria to cleave the beta-lactam ring

5

What are the three major beta lactamase inhibitors? (CAST)

-Clavulanic acid
-Sulbactam
-Tazobactam

6

What are the two major anti-pseudomonal PCNs?

Ticarcillin and piperacillin

7

What are the three major penicillinase resistant PCNs? What bacteria do these typically treat?

Oxacillin
Nafcillin
Dicloxacillin

"Naf for staph"

8

What are the two major penicillinase-sensitive abx?

Ampicillin
Amox

9

Which has more oral availability: amoxicillin or ampicillin?

AmOxicillin has more O-ral availability

10

What are the bacteria that ampicillin/amoxicillin are used to treat? (HELPSS)

Haemophilus
E.coli
Listeria
Proteus
Salmonella
Shigella

11

What is the general MOA of cephalosporins? Are these bactericidal or bacteriostatic?

Beta-lactam drugs that inhibit the cell wall synthesis, but are less susceptible to Penicillinases

bactericidal

12

What are the two first gen cephalosporins, and what are the three bacteria that they usually treat? (PEcK)

Cefazolin
Cephalexin

Proteus
Ecoli
Klebsiella

13

What are the three major third generation cephalosporins, and what are the 7 bacteria that they are used to treat? (HEN PEcKS)

Cefoxitin
Cefaclor
Cefuroxime

14

What is the general side effect of most cephalosporins?

Hypersensitivity rxn and it K deficiency

15

What other abx should never be combined with cephalosporins? Why?

aminoglycosides
Nephrotoxic

16

What is the only monobactam abx? MOA? Is this beta-lactam resistant?

Aztreonam
Resistant to beta lactamases
Prevents peptidoglycan cross-linking by binding to PCN-bind proteins

17

What is the abx that prevents peptidoglycan cross-linking by binding to PCN-bind proteins?

Aztreonam

18

What is the major side effect of aztreonam?

Occasional GI upset

19

What is the major bacterial type that aztreonam usually works against?

Gram negative rods ONLY

20

What two conditions are ceftriaxone used to treat?

Meningitis
Gonorrhea

21

What condition is ceftazidime used to treat?

Pseudomonas infx

22

What, generally, happens to the spectrum of activity as you progress in the generations of cephalosporins?

Increased

23

What is the MOA of carbapenems?

PCN-like--binds to PBPs and disrupts cell wall synthesis

24

Imipenem is always administered with what drug? Why?

Cilastatin to inhibit renal dehydropeptidase I

"The kill is lastin' with cilastatin"

25

What are the three general categories of bacteria that carbapenems are used against?

Gram positive cocci
Gram negative rods
Anaerobes

26

What are the side effects of carbapenems? (2)

Seizures at high plasma levels
Skin rash

27

What is the MOA of vancomycin?

Inhibits cell wall peptidoglycan formation by binding D-ala D-ala portion of cell wall precursors

28

What are the bacteria that vanco are used to treat?

Gram positive only

29

What are the side effects of vanco? ("NOT trouble free")

Nephrotoxic
Ototoxic
Thrombophlebitis
Red man syndrome

30

How can you prevent red man syndrome with Vanco?

Slow administration + antihistamines