Flashcards in Antimicrobials Deck (111)
What is the MOA of PCNs?
binds PBPs and block the transpeptidase cross-linking of peptidoglycan
Activate autolytic enzymes
What, generally, are the bacteria that PCNs are used to treat?
What is the major adverse reaction to PCNs?
How is resistance to PCNs conferred to bacteria?
Penicillinase in bacteria to cleave the beta-lactam ring
What are the three major beta lactamase inhibitors? (CAST)
What are the two major anti-pseudomonal PCNs?
Ticarcillin and piperacillin
What are the three major penicillinase resistant PCNs? What bacteria do these typically treat?
"Naf for staph"
What are the two major penicillinase-sensitive abx?
Which has more oral availability: amoxicillin or ampicillin?
AmOxicillin has more O-ral availability
What are the bacteria that ampicillin/amoxicillin are used to treat? (HELPSS)
What is the general MOA of cephalosporins? Are these bactericidal or bacteriostatic?
Beta-lactam drugs that inhibit the cell wall synthesis, but are less susceptible to Penicillinases
What are the two first gen cephalosporins, and what are the three bacteria that they usually treat? (PEcK)
What are the three major third generation cephalosporins, and what are the 7 bacteria that they are used to treat? (HEN PEcKS)
What is the general side effect of most cephalosporins?
Hypersensitivity rxn and it K deficiency
What other abx should never be combined with cephalosporins? Why?
What is the only monobactam abx? MOA? Is this beta-lactam resistant?
Resistant to beta lactamases
Prevents peptidoglycan cross-linking by binding to PCN-bind proteins
What is the abx that prevents peptidoglycan cross-linking by binding to PCN-bind proteins?
What is the major side effect of aztreonam?
Occasional GI upset
What is the major bacterial type that aztreonam usually works against?
Gram negative rods ONLY
What two conditions are ceftriaxone used to treat?
What condition is ceftazidime used to treat?
What, generally, happens to the spectrum of activity as you progress in the generations of cephalosporins?
What is the MOA of carbapenems?
PCN-like--binds to PBPs and disrupts cell wall synthesis
Imipenem is always administered with what drug? Why?
Cilastatin to inhibit renal dehydropeptidase I
"The kill is lastin' with cilastatin"
What are the three general categories of bacteria that carbapenems are used against?
Gram positive cocci
Gram negative rods
What are the side effects of carbapenems? (2)
Seizures at high plasma levels
What is the MOA of vancomycin?
Inhibits cell wall peptidoglycan formation by binding D-ala D-ala portion of cell wall precursors
What are the bacteria that vanco are used to treat?
Gram positive only
What are the side effects of vanco? ("NOT trouble free")
Red man syndrome