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Flashcards in Biochem metabolism Deck (102)
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1

What are the regulators of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1)? (two +, two -)

+ AMP, fructose 2,6 bisphosphate

- ATP, citrate

2

What are the regulators of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase? (two +, two -)

+ ATP, acetyl-CoA

- AMP fructose 2,6 bisphosphatase

3

What are the regulators of isocitrate dehydrogenase? (one +, 2 -)

+ ADP

- ATP, NADH

4

What is the enzyme needed to take glucose to G6P? Other way?

Hexokinase

Glucose-6-phosphatase

5

What is the enzyme needed to take G6P to fructose-6-phosphate?

GP isomerase

6

Where is Hexokinase found in highest quantities? Glucokinase?

Hexokinase = most tissues

Glucokinase = Liver and Beta cells of pancreas

7

What is the equation for Km, if K1 = rate from substrates to enzyme/substrate complex, K2 = rate from complex back to substrates, and K3 = rate from complex to products?

Km = (K2+K3)/K1

8

Which is induced by insulin, hexokinase, or glucokinase?

Hexokinase

9

Which is feedback inhibited by glucose, hexokinase or glucokinase?

hexokinase

10

Which has a gene mutation that is associated with maturity onset DM, hexokinase or glucokinase?

Glucokinase

11

What is the MOA or Arsenic?

Blocks ATP generation by phosphoglycerate kinase

12

What are the two downregulators of hexokinase?

G6P
Fructose-6-phosphate

13

What are the only two amino acids that are strictly ketogenic?

Lysine and Leucine

14

What are the findings of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency?

Neurological defects, lactic acidosis

15

What is the treatment for pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency?

Increase ketogenic nutrients

16

What is the cofactor that is needed to keep glutathione reduced? What happens if this enzyme is impaired?

NADH

Hemolytic anemia

17

What is the enzyme that uses NADH to reduce glutathione? Oxidize it?

Glutathione reductase

Glutathione peroxidase

18

What is the cause of essential fructosuria? Symptoms?

Fructokinase does not function properly. Benign loss of fructose in urine.

19

What is the enzymatic cause of fructose intolerance?

Deficiency of aldolase B

20

What is the effect of galactokinase deficiency?

Galactouria, infantile cataracts,

21

What is the cause of classic galactosemia? Symptoms = ?

Absence of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase

Symptoms = Infantile cataracts, MR, jaundice

22

What is the enzyme that converts glucose to sorbitol? Sorbitol to fructose?

Aldose reductase
Sorbitol dehydrogenase

23

Why is it that DM can damage the eye?

Eye only has aldose reductase, therefore there is an accumulation of sorbitol

24

Which type of aminoacids are needed, L or D?

L

25

What are the three amino acids that are only glucogenic?

M
V
H

26

What are the two acidic amino acids?

Aspartic acid
Glutamic acid

27

What are the three basic amino acids?

R
K
H

28

What are the substrates of the urea cycle? (hint: Ordinarily, careless crappers are frivolous about urination)?

Ornithine
Carbamoyl phosphate
Citrulline
Argininosuccinate
Fumarate
Arginine
Urea

29

Why is it that hyperammonemia leads to inhibition of the TCA cycle?

Loss of alpha-keto glutarate

30

What is the treatment for hyperammonemia? What are the two drugs that can be given?

Limit protein intake
Benzoate
Phenylbutyrate