Flashcards in Biochem metabolism Deck (102)
What are the regulators of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1)? (two +, two -)
+ AMP, fructose 2,6 bisphosphate
- ATP, citrate
What are the regulators of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase? (two +, two -)
+ ATP, acetyl-CoA
- AMP fructose 2,6 bisphosphatase
What are the regulators of isocitrate dehydrogenase? (one +, 2 -)
- ATP, NADH
What is the enzyme needed to take glucose to G6P? Other way?
What is the enzyme needed to take G6P to fructose-6-phosphate?
Where is Hexokinase found in highest quantities? Glucokinase?
Hexokinase = most tissues
Glucokinase = Liver and Beta cells of pancreas
What is the equation for Km, if K1 = rate from substrates to enzyme/substrate complex, K2 = rate from complex back to substrates, and K3 = rate from complex to products?
Km = (K2+K3)/K1
Which is induced by insulin, hexokinase, or glucokinase?
Which is feedback inhibited by glucose, hexokinase or glucokinase?
Which has a gene mutation that is associated with maturity onset DM, hexokinase or glucokinase?
What is the MOA or Arsenic?
Blocks ATP generation by phosphoglycerate kinase
What are the two downregulators of hexokinase?
What are the only two amino acids that are strictly ketogenic?
Lysine and Leucine
What are the findings of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency?
Neurological defects, lactic acidosis
What is the treatment for pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency?
Increase ketogenic nutrients
What is the cofactor that is needed to keep glutathione reduced? What happens if this enzyme is impaired?
What is the enzyme that uses NADH to reduce glutathione? Oxidize it?
What is the cause of essential fructosuria? Symptoms?
Fructokinase does not function properly. Benign loss of fructose in urine.
What is the enzymatic cause of fructose intolerance?
Deficiency of aldolase B
What is the effect of galactokinase deficiency?
Galactouria, infantile cataracts,
What is the cause of classic galactosemia? Symptoms = ?
Absence of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase
Symptoms = Infantile cataracts, MR, jaundice
What is the enzyme that converts glucose to sorbitol? Sorbitol to fructose?
Why is it that DM can damage the eye?
Eye only has aldose reductase, therefore there is an accumulation of sorbitol
Which type of aminoacids are needed, L or D?
What are the three amino acids that are only glucogenic?
What are the two acidic amino acids?
What are the three basic amino acids?
What are the substrates of the urea cycle? (hint: Ordinarily, careless crappers are frivolous about urination)?
Why is it that hyperammonemia leads to inhibition of the TCA cycle?
Loss of alpha-keto glutarate