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Flashcards in Pathology: inflammation Deck (161)
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1

True or false: apoptosis requires ATP

True

2

Apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway and extrinsic pathway both lead to activation of what proteins?

Caspases

3

What is nuclear shrinkage seen in apoptosis?

Pyknosis

4

What is the nuclear fragmentation seen in apoptosis?

Karyorrhexis

5

What happens to the cytoplasm of cells undergoing apoptosis?

Deep eosinophilia

6

DNA laddering, seen in apoptosis, is caused by what (name the process used, and the enzyme)?

Radiation, causing endonucleases to cleave DNA

7

BAX is pro or anti apoptotic?

Pro

8

Bcl-2 is pro or anti apoptotic?

Anti

9

What is the chemical released from mitochondria that cause apoptosis?

Cytochrome C

10

How does Bcl-2 prevent cytochrome 2 release?

Binds and inhibits Apaf-1

11

What is the MOA of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis?

Changes in regulating fators

12

What are the two routes of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis?

-Ligand receptor (FasL binds to Fas)
-CTL release of perforin/granzyme

13

What is the the route of apoptosis that the thymus undergoes?

Fas +FasL

14

What happens in the apoptotic pathway when Fas binds FasL?

Forms a death domain (FADD)

15

Defective Fas-Fasl interaction is the basis for what types of disorders?

Autoimmune disorders

16

What types of tissues undergo coagulative necrosis?

Tissues supplied by end arteries (heart, liver, kidneys) with cell walls

17

What types of tissues undergo liquefactive necrosis?

Brain, abscesses--areas with high fat content

18

What types of infections cause caseous necrosis? (3)

TB
Systemic fungal infections
Nocardia

19

What causes the dark blue stain of fatty necrosis?

Ca deposits

20

What are the histological characteristics of fibrinoid necrosis?

Amorphous and pink on H&E

21

What are the two types of gangrenous necrosis?

Wet (Infection)
Dry (ischemic coagulative)

22

Reversible with O2, or irreversible: ATP depletion

Reversible

23

Reversible with O2, or irreversible: nuclear pyknosis, karyorrhexis, or karyolysis

Irreversible

24

Reversible with O2, or irreversible: cellular/mito swelling

Reversible

25

Reversible with O2, or irreversible: nuclear chromatin clumping

Reversible

26

Reversible with O2, or irreversible: Lysosomal rupture

Irreversible

27

Reversible with O2, or irreversible: Mitochondrial permeability

Irreversible

28

Reversible with O2, or irreversible: cellular fatty changes

Reversible

29

Reversible with O2, or irreversible: ribosomal/polysomal detachment

Reversible

30

Reversible with O2, or irreversible:membrane blebbing

Reversible