Flashcards in Pathology: inflammation Deck (161)
True or false: apoptosis requires ATP
Apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway and extrinsic pathway both lead to activation of what proteins?
What is nuclear shrinkage seen in apoptosis?
What is the nuclear fragmentation seen in apoptosis?
What happens to the cytoplasm of cells undergoing apoptosis?
DNA laddering, seen in apoptosis, is caused by what (name the process used, and the enzyme)?
Radiation, causing endonucleases to cleave DNA
BAX is pro or anti apoptotic?
Bcl-2 is pro or anti apoptotic?
What is the chemical released from mitochondria that cause apoptosis?
How does Bcl-2 prevent cytochrome 2 release?
Binds and inhibits Apaf-1
What is the MOA of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis?
Changes in regulating fators
What are the two routes of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis?
-Ligand receptor (FasL binds to Fas)
-CTL release of perforin/granzyme
What is the the route of apoptosis that the thymus undergoes?
What happens in the apoptotic pathway when Fas binds FasL?
Forms a death domain (FADD)
Defective Fas-Fasl interaction is the basis for what types of disorders?
What types of tissues undergo coagulative necrosis?
Tissues supplied by end arteries (heart, liver, kidneys) with cell walls
What types of tissues undergo liquefactive necrosis?
Brain, abscesses--areas with high fat content
What types of infections cause caseous necrosis? (3)
Systemic fungal infections
What causes the dark blue stain of fatty necrosis?
What are the histological characteristics of fibrinoid necrosis?
Amorphous and pink on H&E
What are the two types of gangrenous necrosis?
Dry (ischemic coagulative)
Reversible with O2, or irreversible: ATP depletion
Reversible with O2, or irreversible: nuclear pyknosis, karyorrhexis, or karyolysis
Reversible with O2, or irreversible: cellular/mito swelling
Reversible with O2, or irreversible: nuclear chromatin clumping
Reversible with O2, or irreversible: Lysosomal rupture
Reversible with O2, or irreversible: Mitochondrial permeability
Reversible with O2, or irreversible: cellular fatty changes
Reversible with O2, or irreversible: ribosomal/polysomal detachment