Flashcards in Micro Deck (155):
What is the function of the peptidoglycan layer?
Gives cells rigid support.
What is the major surface antigen on bacteria?
Cell wall (if gram positive)
What is the antigenic part of the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria?
What is the function of the capsule of bacteria?
Protects against phagocytosis
What is the function of pilli?
What is the function of the glycocalyx?
Mediates cell adherence to surfaces
What is the gram stain and morphology of staph and strep?
Gram positive cocci
What is the gram stain and morphology of Neisseria?
Gram negative cocci
What is the gram stain and morphology of Clostridium?
Gram positive rod
What is the gram stain and morphology of Corynybacterium?
Gram positive rod
What is the gram stain and morphology of Bacillus?
Gram positive rod
What is the gram stain and morphology of Listeria?
Gram positive rod
What is the gram stain and morphology of mycobacterium?
Weak Gram positive (acid fast) rod
What is the gram stain and morphology of gardnerella?
Gram variable rod
What are the two gram positive, branching filamentous rods?
What are the two pleomorphic, gram negative rods?
What are the three gram negative spirochetes?
What are the three major gram negative respiratory bacteria?
What are the 6 bacteria that do not gram stain well? (hint: These Microbes May Lack Real Color)
What are the bacteria that stain with a Giemsa stain? (hint: Certain Bugs Really Try My Patience)
What is the PAS reaction used for?
India ink stain = ?
Ziehl-Neelsen (carbol fuchsin rxn) is used to identify which bacteria?
Nocardia and Mycobacterium
Silver stain is used to identify what type of organisms?
Which bacteria needs chocolate agar with factors V (NAD) and X (hematin)?
Which bacteria needs Thayer-Martin media (VPM)?
What is contained within the VPM media that N. gonorrhoeae and N. Meningitidis need?
Which bacteria needs Bordet-Gengou (potato) agar?
Bordetella pertussis (bordet for bordetella)
Which bacteria needs Lowenstein-Jensen agar?
What is the agar that fungi need to grow?
Sabourand (Sab's a fun gi)
Aerobic or anaerobic: Nocardia
Aerobic or anaerobic: Pseudomonas
Aerobic or anaerobic: mycobacterium
Aerobic or anaerobic: clostridium
Aerobic or anaerobic: Bacteroides
Aerobic or anaerobic: actinomyces
What are the enzymes needed for a bacteria to be able to survive oxygen?
Catalase and superoxide dismutase
Burn wounds, what bacteria?
What are the two intracellular parasitic bacteria?
Rickettsia, and chlamydia (stay inside cells when it's Really Cold)
What are the eight facultative intracellular parasites?
(Some Nasty Bugs May Live Facultatively)
What are the 7 encapsulated bacteria that are normally cleared by the spleen? (SHiNE SKiS)
Haemophilus influenzae type B
What are the catalase positive organisms (7, PLACESS for your cats)?
What is the cause of chronic granulomatous disease?
Defect or deficiency of NADPH oxidase
True or false: a pure polysaccharide antigen cannot be presented to T cells for immune system activation
True or false: H influenzae, Meningococcal, and PCV vaccines are all conjugated polysaccharide vaccines
What are the urease positive organisms? (CHuck norris hates PUNKSS)
What is the color of the pigment produced by actinomyces israelii?
What is the color of the pigment produced by Staph Aureus?
yellow (Aureus = gold)
What is the color of pseudomonas aeruginosa?
What is the color of Marcescens?
What is the function of the protein A bacterial virulence factor?
Binds to Fc region of IgG
What is the function of the IgA protease that is secreted by S. pneumoniae, Neisseria, and H .influ?
Which bacteria secrete IgA protease (hint, all are encapsulated bacteria, but not all encapsulated bacteria secrete IgA protease)?
What is the M protein found on bacteria?
prevents phagocytosis. Expressed by GAS.
Is exotoxin found on gram negative or gram positive bacteria?
Is endotoxin found on gram negative or gram positive bacteria?
Is exotoxin found on cell membranes, or secreted? Endotoxin?
Exo is secreted
Endo found on gram - cell walls
What type of polymer are exotoxins? Endotoxins?
Exo = polypeptide
Endo = Lipopolysaccharide
Where is the gene located for exotoxins? Endotoxins?
Exo = Plasmid
Endo = Bacterial chromosome
What is the toxicity of exotoxins? Endotoxins?
Exo = highly toxic
Endo = low toxicity
What are the effects of endotoxins?
What is the MOA of endotoxin (what are the three chemokines that the body secretes)?
Is the antigenicity of exotoxins high or low? Endo?
Exo = induces many antibodies
Endo = Low
Is there a vaccine available for exotoxins? How about endotoxins?
Exo = yes
Endo = no
Which is more heat stable: endotoxins or exotoxins?
Clostridium tetani: endo or exotoxin?
Diphtheria: endotoxin or exotoxin?
What is the MOA of diptheria toxin?
What is the exotoxin that pseudomonas releases? MOA?
What is the exotoxin that Shigella releases? MOA?
Inactivates 60S ribosome
What is the exotoxin that EHEC releases? MOA?
Inactivates 60S ribosome
Does EHEC invade host cells?
What causes the diarrhea associated with Shiga toxin?
Gi mucosal damage
What is the MOA of the heat labile toxin that ETEC releases? Heat stable one?
heat labile=Over Activates cAMP (labile in the Air)
Stable = over activates cGMP (stable on the Ground)
What is the exotoxin that bacillus anthracis releases? MOA?
Mimics adenylate cyclase
Black eschar = ?
What is the exotoxin that Vibrio Cholerae releases? MOA?
Over Activates adenylate cyclase
Rice water diarrhea = ?
What is the exotoxin that bordetella pertussis releases? MOA?
Increases cAMP to inhibit phagocytosis
What is the exotoxin that Clostridium tetani releases? MOA?
Inhibits SNAREs of presynaptic terminals of inhibitory interneurons
What is the exotoxin that clostridium botulinum releases? MOA?
Inhibits SNARES of excitatory neurons
What is the exotoxin that Clostridium perfringens releases? MOA?
phospholipase degrades cells membranes
What is the exotoxin that Streptococcus pyogenes releases? MOA?
protein that degrades cell membranes
What is the disease caused by clostridium perfringens?
Diarrhea, myonecrosis, gas gangrene
What is the bacteria that causes toxic shock syndrome? Exotoxin?
What is the superantigen that GAS (strep pyogenes) releases?
Is LPS heat stable or labile?
What are the signs/symptoms of LPS shock (ENDOTOXIN)
eXtremely heat stable
What is bacterial transformation?
Ability to take up naked DNA
Which bacteria can transform easily?
Is F+ x F+ possible?
Is F+ x Hfr possible?
What is bacterial transposition?
Segment of bacterial DNA that can transpose from one location to another
What is generalized transduction?
What is specialized transduction?
When Bacterial DNA is incorporated into phage protein capsule
What are the ABCDE toxins that are encoded by lysogenic phages?
Erythrogenic toxin of strep pyogenes
Gram positive bacteria with branching filaments that is anaerobic and not acid fast. What bacteria is this?
Gram positive bacteria printing film in aerobic and acid fast. What bacteria is this?
Gram positive cocci that is catalase positive and coagulase positive = ?
Gram positive cocci that is catalase negative = ?
Gram positive cocci that is catalase positive, Coagulase negative, and novobiocin sensitive is what?
Gram positive cocci that is catalase positive, Coagulase negative, and NOT novobiocin sensitive is what?
Gram positive cocci that is catalase negative, and hemolysis alpha = ?
Gram positive cocci that is catalase negative, and hemolysis beta= ?
Gram positive cocci that is catalase negative, and hemolysis gamma= ?
Group D enterococcus
How do you differentiate between strep pyogenes and strep agalactiae?
bacitracin positive = pyogenes
Is strep pyogenes bacitracin sensitive?
What does alpha hemolysis mean?
What does beta hemolysis mean?
What does gamma hemolysis mean?
No hemolysis on blood agar
Which Staphylococcus bacteria is novobiocin resistant?
Which Staphylococcus bacteria is sensitive to novobiocin?
Which streptococcus bacteria is optochin sensitive?
Which streptococcus bacteria is optochin resistant?
Which strep bacteria is bacitracin resistant? Sensitive?
resistant = GBS
Sensitive = GAS
What is the virulence factor on Staph Aureus?
What is the MOA of TSST-1?
binds to MHC class II, resulting in polyclonal T cell activation...shock
Gram positive cocci that is catalase positive, coagulase positive = ?
What is the major bacteria that coats catheters?
What are the first and second most common causes of UTIs?
What are the four diseases that strep pneumoniae commonly causes? Is strep pneumoniae optochin sensitive or resistant?
(MOPS (most optochin sensitive))
True or false: strep pneumoniae has no virulence without a capsule?
Which hemolysis result for Strep viridans? Which abx is used to differentiate them? Sensitive or resistant?
(they colonize the mouth because they are not afraid of the chin (optochin))
What is the causative agent of strep throat?
What is the cause of acute glomerulonephritis?
What is the abx used to differentiate strep pyogenes? Sensitive or resistant?
Bacitracin is used to differentiate between which two groups of strep? Which is sensitive/resistant?
GBS = resistant
Strep pyogenes = sensitive
What diseases do enterococcus bacteria cause?
What disease is strep bovis associated with?
Colon cancer (bovis in the blood = CA in the colon)
Pseudomembranous pharyngitis = ?
Corynebacterium diphtheriae = gram positive or negative? rods or cocci?
gram positive rods
Which of the following bacteria form spores:
What are the neurons that are affected by tetanospasmin?
What is the MOA of botulinum toxin?
Inhibits SNAREs from releasing ACh
Canned goods, honey = ?
gas gangrene = ?
What are the two toxins released by C. diff? What does each do?
Toxin A--binds brush border
Toxin B--disrupts actin polymerization
What is the treatment for C. diff infx?
Bacillus anthracis: gram positive or negative? Morphology? Spores?
gram positive Rod
yes to spores
Box shaped, gram positive, rods?
What is cutaneous anthrax? (symptoms, prognosis)?
Black esher, rarely deadly
What is pulmonary anthrax?
What disease does bacillus cereus cause?
reheated rice = ?
Unpasteurized deli meats and cheeses + food poisoning = ?
Rocket bacteria = ?
Listeria: rods or cocci? gram positive or negative?
gram positive rods
Nocardia vs actinomyces: which is gram positive
Nocardia vs actinomyces: which is aerobic
Nocardia vs actinomyces: which is acid fast
Nocardia vs actinomyces: which is treated with PCN, and which with sulfa?
Actinomyces = PCN
Nocardia = Sulfa
What is a Ghon complex?
Focus of radiopacity, indicative of TB
What disease does mycobacterium Kansasii cause?
Like TB, but less severe
What disease does mycobacterium avium-intracellulare cause?
Disseminated, non-TB disease in AIDS pts