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Flashcards in Micro Deck (155):
1

What is the function of the peptidoglycan layer?

Gives cells rigid support.

2

What is the major surface antigen on bacteria?

Cell wall (if gram positive)

3

What is the antigenic part of the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria?

Lipid A

4

What is the function of the capsule of bacteria?

Protects against phagocytosis

5

What is the function of pilli?

Cell attachment

6

What is the function of the glycocalyx?

Mediates cell adherence to surfaces

7

What is the gram stain and morphology of staph and strep?

Gram positive cocci

8

What is the gram stain and morphology of Neisseria?

Gram negative cocci

9

What is the gram stain and morphology of Clostridium?

Gram positive rod

10

What is the gram stain and morphology of Corynybacterium?

Gram positive rod

11

What is the gram stain and morphology of Bacillus?

Gram positive rod

12

What is the gram stain and morphology of Listeria?

Gram positive rod

13

What is the gram stain and morphology of mycobacterium?

Weak Gram positive (acid fast) rod

14

What is the gram stain and morphology of gardnerella?

Gram variable rod

15

What are the two gram positive, branching filamentous rods?

Actinomyces
Nocardia

16

What are the two pleomorphic, gram negative rods?

Rickettsiae
Chlamydiae

17

What are the three gram negative spirochetes?

Borrelia
Leptospira
Treponema

18

What are the three major gram negative respiratory bacteria?

Haemophilus
Legionella
Bordetella

19

What are the 6 bacteria that do not gram stain well? (hint: These Microbes May Lack Real Color)

Treponema
Mycobacteria
Mycoplasma
Legionella
Rickettsia
chlamydia

20

What are the bacteria that stain with a Giemsa stain? (hint: Certain Bugs Really Try My Patience)

Chlamydia
Borrelia
Rickettsia
Trypanosomes
Plasmodium

21

What is the PAS reaction used for?

Polysaccharides

22

India ink stain = ?

Cryptococcus neoformans

23

Ziehl-Neelsen (carbol fuchsin rxn) is used to identify which bacteria?

Nocardia and Mycobacterium

24

Silver stain is used to identify what type of organisms?

Fungi

25

Which bacteria needs chocolate agar with factors V (NAD) and X (hematin)?

H. influenzae

26

Which bacteria needs Thayer-Martin media (VPM)?

Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Neisseria Meningitidis

27

What is contained within the VPM media that N. gonorrhoeae and N. Meningitidis need?

Vancomycin
Polymyxin
Nystatin

28

Which bacteria needs Bordet-Gengou (potato) agar?

Bordetella pertussis (bordet for bordetella)

29

Which bacteria needs Lowenstein-Jensen agar?

TB

30

What is the agar that fungi need to grow?

Sabourand (Sab's a fun gi)

31

Aerobic or anaerobic: Nocardia

aerobic

32

Aerobic or anaerobic: Pseudomonas

aerobic

33

Aerobic or anaerobic: mycobacterium

aerobic

34

Aerobic or anaerobic: clostridium

Anaerobic

35

Aerobic or anaerobic: Bacteroides

Anaerobic

36

Aerobic or anaerobic: actinomyces

Anaerobic

37

What are the enzymes needed for a bacteria to be able to survive oxygen?

Catalase and superoxide dismutase

38

Burn wounds, what bacteria?

Pseudomonas

39

What are the two intracellular parasitic bacteria?

Rickettsia, and chlamydia (stay inside cells when it's Really Cold)

40

What are the eight facultative intracellular parasites?

salmonella
Neisseria
Brucella
Mycobacterium
Listeria
Francisella
Legionella
Yersinia

(Some Nasty Bugs May Live Facultatively)

41

What are the 7 encapsulated bacteria that are normally cleared by the spleen? (SHiNE SKiS)

Strep pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae type B
Neisseria meningitidis
E.coli
Salmonella
Klebsiella
GBS

42

What are the catalase positive organisms (7, PLACESS for your cats)?

Pseudomonas
Listeria
Aspergillus
candida
E.coli
S. Aureus
Serratia

43

What is the cause of chronic granulomatous disease?

Defect or deficiency of NADPH oxidase

44

True or false: a pure polysaccharide antigen cannot be presented to T cells for immune system activation

true

45

True or false: H influenzae, Meningococcal, and PCV vaccines are all conjugated polysaccharide vaccines

True

46

What are the urease positive organisms? (CHuck norris hates PUNKSS)

Cryptococcus
H. Pylori
Proteus
ureaplasma
Nocardia
Klebsiella
S epidermidis
S. Saprophyticus

47

What is the color of the pigment produced by actinomyces israelii?

Yellow

48

What is the color of the pigment produced by Staph Aureus?

yellow (Aureus = gold)

49

What is the color of pseudomonas aeruginosa?

Green

50

What is the color of Marcescens?

Red

51

What is the function of the protein A bacterial virulence factor?

Binds to Fc region of IgG

52

What is the function of the IgA protease that is secreted by S. pneumoniae, Neisseria, and H .influ?

Cleaves IgA

53

Which bacteria secrete IgA protease (hint, all are encapsulated bacteria, but not all encapsulated bacteria secrete IgA protease)?

S. pneumoniae
H .influ
Neisseria
(SHiN)

54

What is the M protein found on bacteria?

prevents phagocytosis. Expressed by GAS.

55

Is exotoxin found on gram negative or gram positive bacteria?

Both

56

Is endotoxin found on gram negative or gram positive bacteria?

Negative

57

Is exotoxin found on cell membranes, or secreted? Endotoxin?

Exo is secreted
Endo found on gram - cell walls

58

What type of polymer are exotoxins? Endotoxins?

Exo = polypeptide
Endo = Lipopolysaccharide

59

Where is the gene located for exotoxins? Endotoxins?

Exo = Plasmid
Endo = Bacterial chromosome

60

What is the toxicity of exotoxins? Endotoxins?

Exo = highly toxic
Endo = low toxicity

61

What are the effects of endotoxins?

fever
Shock
DIC

62

What is the MOA of endotoxin (what are the three chemokines that the body secretes)?

Induces TNF-alpha
IL-1
IL-6

63

Is the antigenicity of exotoxins high or low? Endo?

Exo = induces many antibodies
Endo = Low

64

Is there a vaccine available for exotoxins? How about endotoxins?

Exo = yes
Endo = no

65

Which is more heat stable: endotoxins or exotoxins?

Endo

66

Clostridium tetani: endo or exotoxin?

Exo

67

Diphtheria: endotoxin or exotoxin?

Exo

68

What is the MOA of diptheria toxin?

Inactivates EF-2

69

What is the exotoxin that pseudomonas releases? MOA?

Exotoxin A
Inactivates EF-2

70

What is the exotoxin that Shigella releases? MOA?

Shiga toxin
Inactivates 60S ribosome

71

What is the exotoxin that EHEC releases? MOA?

Shiga-like toxin
Inactivates 60S ribosome

72

Does EHEC invade host cells?

No

73

What causes the diarrhea associated with Shiga toxin?

Gi mucosal damage

74

What is the MOA of the heat labile toxin that ETEC releases? Heat stable one?

heat labile=Over Activates cAMP (labile in the Air)
Stable = over activates cGMP (stable on the Ground)

75

What is the exotoxin that bacillus anthracis releases? MOA?

Edema factor
Mimics adenylate cyclase

76

Black eschar = ?

Bacillus anthracis

77

What is the exotoxin that Vibrio Cholerae releases? MOA?

Cholera toxin
Over Activates adenylate cyclase

78

Rice water diarrhea = ?

Cholera

79

What is the exotoxin that bordetella pertussis releases? MOA?

Pertussis toxin
Increases cAMP to inhibit phagocytosis

80

What is the exotoxin that Clostridium tetani releases? MOA?

Tetanospasmin
Inhibits SNAREs of presynaptic terminals of inhibitory interneurons

81

What is the exotoxin that clostridium botulinum releases? MOA?

Botulinum toxin
Inhibits SNARES of excitatory neurons

82

What is the exotoxin that Clostridium perfringens releases? MOA?

Alpha toxin
phospholipase degrades cells membranes

83

What is the exotoxin that Streptococcus pyogenes releases? MOA?

Streptolysin O
protein that degrades cell membranes

84

What is the disease caused by clostridium perfringens?

Diarrhea, myonecrosis, gas gangrene

85

What is the bacteria that causes toxic shock syndrome? Exotoxin?

Staph Aureus---TSST-1

86

What is the superantigen that GAS (strep pyogenes) releases?

Exotoxin A

87

Is LPS heat stable or labile?

Stable

88

What are the signs/symptoms of LPS shock (ENDOTOXIN)

Edema
Nitric oxide
DIC
Outer membrane
TNF-alpha
O antigen
eXtremely heat stable
IL-1
Neutrophil chemotaxis

89

What is bacterial transformation?

Ability to take up naked DNA

90

Which bacteria can transform easily?

SHiN
S. pneumoniae
H. Influ
Neisseria

91

Is F+ x F+ possible?

No

92

Is F+ x Hfr possible?

Yes

93

What is bacterial transposition?

Segment of bacterial DNA that can transpose from one location to another

94

What is generalized transduction?

Lytic cycle

95

What is specialized transduction?

When Bacterial DNA is incorporated into phage protein capsule

96

What are the ABCDE toxins that are encoded by lysogenic phages?

shigA
botulinum
Cholera
Diphtheria
Erythrogenic toxin of strep pyogenes

97

Gram positive bacteria with branching filaments that is anaerobic and not acid fast. What bacteria is this?

Actinomyces

98

Gram positive bacteria printing film in aerobic and acid fast. What bacteria is this?

Nocardia

99

Gram positive cocci that is catalase positive and coagulase positive = ?

Staphylococcus aureus

100

Gram positive cocci that is catalase negative = ?

Strep

101

Gram positive cocci that is catalase positive, Coagulase negative, and novobiocin sensitive is what?

Staph epidermidis

102

Gram positive cocci that is catalase positive, Coagulase negative, and NOT novobiocin sensitive is what?

Staph Saprophyticus

103

Gram positive cocci that is catalase negative, and hemolysis alpha = ?

Strep pneumoniae

104

Gram positive cocci that is catalase negative, and hemolysis beta= ?

S. pyogenes
S. Agalactiae

105

Gram positive cocci that is catalase negative, and hemolysis gamma= ?

Group D enterococcus

106

How do you differentiate between strep pyogenes and strep agalactiae?

bacitracin positive = pyogenes

107

Is strep pyogenes bacitracin sensitive?

Yes

108

What does alpha hemolysis mean?

partial hemolysis

109

What does beta hemolysis mean?

Complete hemolysis

110

What does gamma hemolysis mean?

No hemolysis on blood agar

111

Which Staphylococcus bacteria is novobiocin resistant?

Staph Saprophyticus

112

Which Staphylococcus bacteria is sensitive to novobiocin?

Staph Epidermidis

113

Which streptococcus bacteria is optochin sensitive?

Pneumoniae

114

Which streptococcus bacteria is optochin resistant?

Viridans

115

Which strep bacteria is bacitracin resistant? Sensitive?

resistant = GBS
Sensitive = GAS

116

What is the virulence factor on Staph Aureus?

Protein A

117

What is the MOA of TSST-1?

binds to MHC class II, resulting in polyclonal T cell activation...shock

118

Gram positive cocci that is catalase positive, coagulase positive = ?

Staph Aureus

119

What is the major bacteria that coats catheters?

Staph Epidermidis

120

What are the first and second most common causes of UTIs?

E.coli
Staph Saprophyticus

121

What are the four diseases that strep pneumoniae commonly causes? Is strep pneumoniae optochin sensitive or resistant?

Meningitis
OM
Pneumonia
Sinusitis

(MOPS (most optochin sensitive))

122

True or false: strep pneumoniae has no virulence without a capsule?

true

123

Which hemolysis result for Strep viridans? Which abx is used to differentiate them? Sensitive or resistant?

Alpha
Optochin
resistant

(they colonize the mouth because they are not afraid of the chin (optochin))

124

What is the causative agent of strep throat?

Strep pyogenes

125

What is the cause of acute glomerulonephritis?

Strep pyogenes

126

What is the abx used to differentiate strep pyogenes? Sensitive or resistant?

Bacitracin sensitive

127

Bacitracin is used to differentiate between which two groups of strep? Which is sensitive/resistant?

GBS = resistant
Strep pyogenes = sensitive

128

What diseases do enterococcus bacteria cause?

UTIs

129

What disease is strep bovis associated with?

Colon cancer (bovis in the blood = CA in the colon)

130

Pseudomembranous pharyngitis = ?

Diphtheria

131

Corynebacterium diphtheriae = gram positive or negative? rods or cocci?

gram positive rods

132

Which of the following bacteria form spores:
-strep pyogenes
-Clostridium perfringens
-Clostridium tetani
-Bacillus anthracis
-Staph aureus

-Clostridium perfringens
-Clostridium tetani
-Bacillus anthracis

133

What are the neurons that are affected by tetanospasmin?

renshaw cells

134

What is the MOA of botulinum toxin?

Inhibits SNAREs from releasing ACh

135

Canned goods, honey = ?

C. Botulinum

136

gas gangrene = ?

Clostridium Perfringens

137

What are the two toxins released by C. diff? What does each do?

Toxin A--binds brush border
Toxin B--disrupts actin polymerization

138

What is the treatment for C. diff infx?

Vanco

139

Bacillus anthracis: gram positive or negative? Morphology? Spores?

gram positive Rod
yes to spores

140

Box shaped, gram positive, rods?

Anthrax

141

What is cutaneous anthrax? (symptoms, prognosis)?

Black esher, rarely deadly

142

What is pulmonary anthrax?

Woolsorter's disease
very deadly

143

What disease does bacillus cereus cause?

Food poisoning

144

reheated rice = ?

bacillus anthracis

145

Unpasteurized deli meats and cheeses + food poisoning = ?

Listeria monocytogenes

146

Rocket bacteria = ?

Listeria monocytogenes

147

Listeria: rods or cocci? gram positive or negative?

gram positive rods

148

Nocardia vs actinomyces: which is gram positive

Both

149

Nocardia vs actinomyces: which is aerobic

nocardia

150

Nocardia vs actinomyces: which is acid fast

nocardia

151

Nocardia vs actinomyces: which is treated with PCN, and which with sulfa?

Actinomyces = PCN
Nocardia = Sulfa

152

What is a Ghon complex?

Focus of radiopacity, indicative of TB

153

What disease does mycobacterium Kansasii cause?

Like TB, but less severe

154

What disease does mycobacterium avium-intracellulare cause?

Disseminated, non-TB disease in AIDS pts

155

true or false: all mycobacteria are acid fast

True