Anxiety, Arousal and Stress Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anxiety, Arousal and Stress Deck (39):
1

Define Arousal

A blend of physiological and psychological activation

2

Define Anxiety

The negative emotional state associated with feelings of worry or nervousness and apprehension

3

Give the 4 sub-headings of anxiety

Cognitive
Somatic
State
Trait

4

Define Cognitive anxiety

Thought component of anxiety associated with worry and concern about capability to achieve a task

5

Define somatic anxiety

Physiological component of anxiety associated with performers increase in HR and BP

6

Define state anxiety

Moment to moment changes in feelings of nervousness or worry to a situation deemed as threatening

7

Define trait anxiety

Acquired predisposition to perceive situations as threatening, responding to these with disproportionate state anxiety levels.

8

Give 3 physiological symptoms indicating anxiety/arousal

o Heart rate
o Blood Pressure
o Respiration
o Skin conductance
o Biochemistry

9

What can the global and multi-dimensional self-report scales be used to indicate

Levels of anxiety/arousal

10

Give one problem associated with the competitive state anxiety inventory

Subject to bias
Subjective

11

Give one benefit associated with the competitive state anxiety inventory

Sport specific, so reliable for athletes

12

Define stress

A state of psychological tension produced by certain perceived physiological and/or psychological pressures facing the performer. It is the perceived imbalance between the demands of the situation and the capability of the performer to meet them.

13

Give the order of the stress response

Environmental demand
Individual's perception of the ED
Stress response
Behavioural outcome

14

Give examples of the stress response

• Arousal
• State anxiety
• Muscle tension
• Attention changes

15

Describe drive theory

This states that as arousal/state anxiety increases so does performance.

16

Describe the inverted-u hypothesis

As physiological arousal increases, so does performance, but only up to an optimal point. If arousal is too high, performance will decrease.

17

Describe the IZOF

Each individual has a preferred level of state anxiety that results in the best performance. Rather than an optimal point, there is a bandwidth and performance with levels of anxiety within the band will result in optimal functioning.

18

Describe the catastrophe model

Performance will increase with arousal up to an optimum point, but, if after that point cognitive arousal remains high then rather than being a gradual drop in performance there is a catastrophic drop.
If the performer can regain composure, performance will improve again.

19

What happens to performance if anxiety is viewed as facilitative

Performance improves

20

What happens if performance is viewed as debilitative

Performance decreases

21

Describe Jones' control model of competitive anxiety

A stressor is introduced, and the performers individual differences affect whether they feel in control or not. If they do feel in control, symptoms are interpreted as facilitative and vice versa

22

Describe how arousal can influence performance (bullet points)

-Increased muscle tension
-Increased coordination difficulties
-Attentional narrowing
-Focusing on incorrect cues
-Performance worries and situation irrelevant thoughts

23

What is the experience of complete failure in performance called (caused by arousal)

Choking

24

How might an athlete view anxiety differently to a non-athlete?

They may see it as more facilitative

25

What are the three headings of anxiety reduction techniques called

• Somatic
• Cognitive
• Multimodal

26

Describe biofeedback

Being attached to a machine which measures HR, Breathing rate, blood pressure etc. Through practice, the performer can learn to control these responses and transfer these techniques to the game situation

27

Give a disadvantage of biofeedback

 Time consuming to learn
 Requires sophisticated machinery

28

Describe progressive muscular relaxation

Performers’ learn to tense and then relax specific muscle groups to develop awareness of what tension feels like to relax in a game

29

Describe breathing (ART)

Controlling breathing rate to reduce muscular tension and focus the mind

30

Describe imagery

-External imagery- performer pictures themselves performing task successfully as others would see them
-Internal imagery- performer pictures themselves performing task successfully as they would see the situation themselves

31

Describe positive self-talk

Maintaining a positive focus by talking to themselves e.g. I can do it

32

Describe autogenic training

Series of exercises designed to produce the sensations of warmth and heaviness to produce a relaxed state

33

Describe stress inoculation training

An individual is exposed to stress in increasing amounts, thereby enhancing their immunity to stress

34

Give 3 ways to increase arousal

• Increase breathing rates
• Act energised
• Use mood words and positive statements
• Listen to music
• Use energising imagery
• Complete a pre-comp workout

35

Give 3 sources of stress (personal)

1. Trait anxiety
2. Self esteem
3. Social physique evaluation anxiety

36

Describe Reversal Theory

The effect of arousal on performance depends on an individual's interpretation of their arousal level. Best performance is when they view arousal as pleasant excitement

37

Describe the Multidimensional Anxiety Theory

States increases in cognitive anxiety decreases performance. At the same time, somatic anxiety is related to performance in an inverted U

38

How can increased arousal affect attention

By changing the attentional style- so the peak flow cannot occur (if negatively changed)

39

How can a coach use knowledge of arousal to benefit performance

1. Identify optimal arousal levels
2. Recognise how situational factors will affect this level
3. Recognise signs of arousal increasing
4. Tailor coaching and instructional practices to individuals
5. Develop self-confidence