Addiction and Unhealthy Behaviours Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Addiction and Unhealthy Behaviours Deck (38):

Define 3 characteristics of anorexia nervosa

• Fear of becoming obese
• Disturbed body image
• A refusal to maintain normal body weight
• Amenorrhea (not criteria anymore)
• Starvation


Give 4 problems can starvation cause

o Potentially fatal
o Low blood pressure
o Concentration problems
o Anaemia
o Kidney failure


Define 3 characteristics of bulimia

• Awareness of the pattern being abnormal
• Depressed mood and self-deprecation
• Fear of being unable to stop eating/Lack of control
• Persistent over-concern with body shape and weight
• Guilt or eating alone


What is the prevalence of eating disorders in sport (1988 survey)

• Surveyed 695 athletes
• 3% met criteria for anorexia
• 21% met criteria for bulimia


Give 4 predisposing factors for eating disorders in sport

 Weight restrictions and standards- weight dependent sports
 Judging criteria- aesthetic sports
 Performance demands Pre
 Coach-applied pressure
 Peer pressure


Give 3 high risk sports for eating disorders

 Swimming
 Running (track & field and cross country)
 Gymnastics
 Diving
 Synchronised Swimming
 Wrestling
 Judo
 Lightweight Rowing


Why might athletes suffer from an eating disorder?

1. Required for performance excellence
2. Required to reach aesthetic ideals of beauty
3. Remark by a member of athletic staff concerning need to lose weight
4. Required to meet a lower weight category


How might we test someone for an eating disorder

1. Questionnaires:
 Diagnostic Survey for Eating Disorders-Revised (DSED: Johnson & Pure, 1986)
 Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI: Garner et al., 1983)
 SCOFF (Morgan, 1999)
2. Medical assessment:
3. Behavioural observation


Give 5 symptoms of an eating disorder

Sores or callouses on knuckles
Headaches, dizziness, or weakness
Weight too low
Weight loss/change
Stress fractures
Eating alone
Disappearance after meals
Guilt about eating
Changes in mood
Body distortion statements- claims of fatness
Frequent weighing


How would you make a referral for someone suffering from an eating disorder

 The referral should be made by someone who has a good rapport with the individual
 Emphasize feelings rather than directly focusing on eating behaviours
 Be supportive and ensure confidentially
 Make a referral to a specific clinic


What are the 5 types of therapy which can be used to treat eating disorders

Psychoactive medication


How could you prevent an eating disorder

 De-emphasise body weight
 Provide nutritional education
 Focus on fitness, not body weight
 Promote sensitivity to weight issues
 Promote healthy management of weight


Define substance abuse

A maladaptive pattern of psychoactive substance


Give the 2 defining characteristics of substance abuse

-continued use despite side-effects
-use in hazardous situations (driving etc)


Define drug addiction

A state where both discontinuing or continuous use of a drug creates an overwhelming desire, need, and craving for more of the substance


Give 4 symptoms of drug addiction

• Tolerance
• Withdrawal symptoms
• Limited control
• Negative consequences
• Neglected/postponed activities
• Significant time or energy spent trying to obtain the substance
• Desire to cut down


What at the 5 categories of performance enhancing drugs

 Anabolic steroids
 Stimulants
 Narcotic analgesics
 Beta-blockers
 Diuretics


Give 3 reasons athletes may take drugs in sport

1. Improving athletic performance (48%)
2. To look better (28%)
3. To prevent injuries (10%)
4. Social reasons (6%)
5. Other reasons (8%)


Give 3 physical symptoms of drug abuse

 Bloodshot eyes
 Dark circles under eyes
 Profuse sweating
 Heightened sensitivity to touch, smell, and sound
 Chronic fatigue
 Trouble maintaining normal body temperature


Give 3 Behavioural signs of drug abuse

 Unusually secretive behaviour
 Social isolation or new circle of friends
 High-risk taking behaviour
 Irresponsible
 Increased tardiness
 Lack of money
 Argumentative


Give 3 emotional signs of drug abuse

 Extreme mood swings
 Irritability
 Less affectionate
 Highly reactive
 Heightened aggression
 Recurrent depressive episodes


Give 3 cognitive signs of drug abuse

 Decreased mental capacities
 Disordered thinking
 Paranoia
 Denial of problems
 Superman complex
 Shortened attention span
 Thoughts of suicide


Give 4 ways we can try and control drug use

Provide education
Provide Social Support
Build Self-Confidence and Self-Esteem
Professional counselling
Promotion of the perception of meaningful team role
Teach sport skills
Avoid boredom
Develop and implement drugs policy and plan of action
Have continuous and random drugs testing programme
Use behavioural contracting


Give 3 effects of stimulants

-reduced fatigue
-increased alertness
-increased endurance
-increased aggression


Give 3 effects of narcotic analgesics

-reduced pain
-fear and anxiety
-dry mouth


Give 3 effects of anabolic steroids

-increased strength
-increased endurance
-improved mental attitude
-increased recovery rates
-liver disease
-heart disease
-increased testosterone


Give 3 effects of beta blockers

-steadied nerves
-lower BP and HR


Give 3 effects of directics

-temporary weight loss
-kidney problems
-muscle spasms
-Stomach problems
-Blood disorders


Give 3 effects of peptide hormones

-Increased strength
-Shortened lifespan
-Increased growth of organs
-menstrual problems


Describe the sports deterrence model of drug abuse

legal sanctions
social sanctions
self-impaired sanctions
health concerns


Give 2 factors are the individual's perceived cost-benefit analysis affected by

-prevalence perceptions
-professional status
-perception of authority legitimacy
-type of drug


Give 3 ways you could prevent substance abuse

-social support
-setting a good example
-teaching coping skills
-feedback programs


Define addiction to exercise

A psychological/physiological dependence on a regular regime of exercise, including withdrawal symptoms


Give 3 symptoms of exercise dependency

-stereotyped pattern of exercise, once or more daily
-Increased priority over other activities
-Increased tolerance to the amount of exercise performed
-Withdrawal symptoms following cessation of exercise
-awareness of their compulsion
-Rapid reinstatement of exercise pattern following period of abstinence


Give 2 withdrawal symptoms

-Interpersonal problems
-feelings of guilt


Give 3 ways to prevent exercise dependency

-schedule rest days
workout regularly with a slower partner
-stop if injured until healed
-train hard-easy
-set realistic goals


Give 2 signs of compulsive gambling

-unbounded optimism
-extreme competitiveness


Describe the Trans-theoretical model of behaviour changing

stage based approach:
self efficacy, decisional balance, process of change lead to a stage of contemplation: