Attention and Concentration Flashcards Preview

Sports Psychology 1 > Attention and Concentration > Flashcards

Flashcards in Attention and Concentration Deck (38):
1

Define concentration

The mental effort placed on sensory or mental events.

2

Define attention

The cognitive process allowing you to focus/concentrate.

3

What are 4 components of concentration

1. Focusing on relevant environment cues.
2. Maintaining attentional focus
3. Situation awareness
4. Shifting attentional focus when necessary

4

What are the 4 attentional processes

1. Breadth of attention
2. Scanning behaviours
3. Distractibility
4. Selective attention bias

5

Give 3 comparisons of elite vs non elite athletes (concentration)

– make faster decisions and better anticipate future events
– attend more to movement patterns
– search more systematically for cues
– selectively attend to the structure inherent in sport
– are more skilful in predicting ball flight patterns

6

Define attentional selectivity

Letting some information into the processing system while other information is screened or ignored,

7

What are some common attentional selectivity errors

• Being too broad in one’s focus
• Being distracted from relevant information by irrelevant information
• Inability to shift focus rapidly enough among all relevant cues

8

Describe the idea of attentional capacity

Attention is limited in the amount of information that can be processed at one time. A bucket.

9

Describe controlled processing

mental processing that involves conscious attention and awareness of what you are doing when you perform a sport skill.

10

Describe automatic processing

mental processing without conscious attention.

11

Are athletes considered more or less proficient if they can switch change from controlled processing to automatic processing

More proficient

12

Describe the idea of attentional alertness

Increases in emotional arousal narrow the attentional field. When you’re nervous or anxious, your attention is narrowed.

13

Which psychologist came up with the idea of attentional styles

Nideffer

14

What are the 4 continuum of attentional styles

Broad
Narrow
Internal
External

15

Describe 'broad' as an attentional style

Attending to a wide range of cues

16

Describe 'narrow' as an attentional style

Focusing on specific cues

17

Describe 'Internal' as an attentional style

Focusing on internal feelings/your body

18

Describe 'External' as an attentional style

Focusing on cues in the environment

19

A lacrosse player passing of the ball is an example of a combination which attentional styles?

Broad External

20

A tennis serve is an example of a combination which attentional styles?

Narrow External

21

Developing a race strategy is an example of a combination which attentional styles?

Broad Internal

22

Taking a breath to relax is an example of a combination which attentional styles?

Narrow Internal

23

Describe the association strategy

Monitoring bodily functions and feelings, such as heart rate, breathing, and muscle tension

24

Describe the dissociation strategy

Not monitoring bodily functions; distraction and tuning out.

25

Should the associative or dissociative strategy be used to increase adherence to exercise?

Dissociation

26

Give 3 internal distractions associated with attentional problems

o Attending to past events (what was?)
o Attending to future events (what if?)
o Choking under pressure
o Overanalysis of body mechanics
o Fatigue
o Inadequate motivation

27

Give 2 internal distractions associated with attentional problems

o Visual distractions
o Auditory distractions

28

Describe choking (attention)

An attentional process that leads to impaired performance and the inability to retain control over performance without outside assistance.

29

What characterises choking (attention)

Performers’ exhibiting conscious step-by-step execution of skills and a breakdown of automated movement patterns.

30

List 3 attentional changes caused as a result of anxiety, which could lead to choking

Having an internal focus
Having a narrow focus
Reduced flexibility

31

Describe concious processing hypothesis

Choking occurs when skilled performers focus too much of their conscious attention to the task, much as they would do if they were a novice at the task. Performance decreases only with increased focus on several task-relevant cues.

32

Give 2 ways to assess attentional skills

Test of Attention and Interpersonal Style (TAIS)
Psychophysiological and neurological measures:

33

Describe an effective attender

They can attend to several stimuli without getting overloaded and can narrow attentional focus without leaving out important information

34

Describe an ineffective attender

They are easily confused with multiple stimuli.

35

Give one method to measure attention itself

Gaze behaviour (eye tracking)

36

Give the three subheadings of fixation metrics

Number of fixations
Fixation duration
Scan Path

37

Describe the results of number of fixations

a concentration of a large number of fixations in a certain area may be related to a user's interest in the object or detail presented in that area when viewing a scene

38

What are 2 components of exceptional performance

-Being absorbed in the present
-Being mentally relaxed
-Complete awareness of the body/environment