AP PSYCHOLOGY MID TERM Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in AP PSYCHOLOGY MID TERM Deck (91):
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CAT Scan

creates a computerized image of x-rays passed through various angles of the brain

1

PET Scan

tracers are injected into the blood

2

MRI

sends pulses of radio waves through brain tisue, allowing computer to construct images

3

f-MRI

detects an increase in oxygen that occurs in an area of heightened neural activity

4

EEG

provides info about brains electrical activity (brain waves)

5

Afferent Neurons

carry impulses toward the CNS

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Efferent Neurons

carry impulses away from the CNS

7

Dendrites

receive messages from other cells

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axon

the extension of a neuron

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terminal branches

messages pass to other neurons

10

myelin sheath

covers axon, speed neural impulses

11

action potential

the signal that travels down the neuron

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resting potential

neuron that is not firing (at rest)

13

sodium potassium pump

what activates different impulses

14

all or none law

neurons either fire or they dont

15

refractory period

period of time after a nerve impulse where it cant refire

16

peripheral nervous system

links the CNS with the body's sense receptors, muscles, and glands

17

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

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autonomic nervous system

PNS controls glands and muscles of the internal organs

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somatic nervous system

the division of Peripheral nervous system that controls body's skeletal muscles

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sympathetic nervous system

division of autonomic nervous system that arouses the body

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parasympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body

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amygdala

emotion

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hypothalamus

maintenance functions and reward

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thalamus

relays messages between lower brain centers and cerebral cortex

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Broca's area

speech

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wernicke's area

speech comprehension

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hippocampus

memory

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aphasia

impairment of language

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plasticity

brain's ability to adapt or something isn't working

30

thyroid gland

in charge of growth and metabolism

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gonads

reproductive organs that secrete hormones

32

Situational attributions vs. dispositional attributions

how someone acts in a certain situation vs their personality related to temperament

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fundamental attribution error

witness someone act a certain way and thinking thats actually how they are

34

group polarization

the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within group

35

group think

the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives

36

social facilitation

the mere presence of others can improve performance on well practiced tasks

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deindividuation

impact of others on restraints to behavior, loss of individuality

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social loafing

on group tasks, people exert less effort

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bystander effect

the more people there are, the less likely that a bystander will intervene

40

cognitive dissonance

adjusts beliefs to match actions

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just world phenomenon

good people get rewarded, bad people get punished

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Social exchange theory

trying to help yourself, maximize benefits, minimize costs

43

sensation

to represent the world in head, we must detect physical energy from environment and encode it

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perception

select, organize, and interpret sensations

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absolute threshold

minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time

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difference threshold

the minimum difference between 2 stimulus required for detection 50% of the time

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Weber's Law

to perceive a difference there must be a certain amount in proportion

48

signal detection theory

changes threshold depends on physical state and expectations

49

sensory adaptations

diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

50

subliminal stimiulation

below our threshold of awareness

51

young-helmholz trichromatic color theory

everything is three colors

52

opponent process theory

we see opposite colors

53

gate control theory

letting in pain or not

54

opioid peptides

relaxants made by the body

55

kinesthetic system

communicates info about movement and location of body parts

56

vestibular system

balance and knowledge of body position

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figure ground

we organize our visual field into objects that stand apart from surroundings

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gestalt organization

organize a cluster of sensations to determine form as a whole

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closure

fill in missing info

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visual cliff

lab device used to perceive depth

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selective attention

attention is only focused on one thing

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parallel processing

brain can do several things simultaneously

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bottom up processing

analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to brains integration of sensory info

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top-down processing

information processing guided by higher-level mental processes

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perceptual set

mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

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telepathy

mind-to-mind communication

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clairvoyance

can perceive remote events

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precognition

can perceive future events

69

rooting reflex

touch babies cheek and baby searches for nipple, shows instinct

70

teratogens

substances that cause birth defects

71

What are PIAGET'S stages?

sensory-motor
pre-operational
concrete-operation
formal-operations

72

assimilation

incorporating new experiences

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accomodation

adjusting old framework to incorporate new experiences

74

object permanence

things continue to exist when they arent there

75

egocentrism

only can see things from their point of view

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conservation

something remains same even when it looks different

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authoritarian

parent is boss, impose rules, expect obedience

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permissive

children have final say, make few demands, give into child

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authoritative

demanding and responsive

80

What are Erikson's stages?

trust vs. misturst
autonomy vs. shame/doubt
initiative vs. guilt
industry vs. inferiority
identity vs. role-confusion
intimacy vs. isolation
generativity vs. stagnation
ego integrity vs. despair

81

What are Kohlberg's Stages?

Preconventional: disobedience-punishment.
avoid puishment
further own interests
Conventional: approval seeking- rules are a duty
expectations of others
doing ones duty
Postconventional: laws are relative, laws can be changed, universal principles
universal and ethical principles

82

generalization

occurs when a Conditioned Response occurs to stimuli that are similar to Conditioned Stimulus

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discrimination

occurs when stimuli similar to the Conditioned Stimulus does not produce a Conditioned Response

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latent learning

learning that takes place before reinforcement is given

85

intrinsic motivation

desire to perform behavior for its own sake

86

extrinsic motivation

desire to perform a behavior of promised rewards or punishment

87

Pavlov

classical conditioning

88

Watson

behaviorism
psychology should be objective that studies behavior without reference to mental processes

89

Skinner

operant conditioning

90

Bandura

observational learning