appendix: molecular biology (and ch. 4) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in appendix: molecular biology (and ch. 4) Deck (73):
1

Gene

A length of DNA that encodes the information for constructing a particular protein

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Protein

A long string of amino acids. Proteins are the basic building material of organisms

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Enzyme

A complicated protein whose action increases the probability of a specific chemical reaction

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

A nucleic acid that is present in the chromosomes of cells and codes hereditary information

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Nucleotide

A portion of DNA or RNA molecule that is composed of a single base and the adjoining sugar-phosphate unit of the strand

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Hybridization

The process by which one string of nucleotides becomes linked to a complementary series of nucleotides

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Chromosome

A complex of condensed strands of DNA and associated protein molecules. Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of cells

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Eukaryotes

Any organism whose cells have the genetic material contained within a nuclear envelope

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Cell nucleus

The spherical central structure of a cell that contains the chromosomes

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

A nucleic acid that implements information found in DNA

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Transcription

The process during which mRNA forms bases complementary to a strand of DNA. The resulting message (called a transcript) is then used to translate the DNA code into protein molecules

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Messenger RNA (mRNA) or transcript

A strand of RNA that carries the code of a section of DNA strand to the cytoplasm

Also called message

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Ribosome

An organelle in the cell body where genetic information is translated to produce proteins

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Translation

The process by which amino acids are linked together (directed by an mRNA molecule) to form protein molecules

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Codon

A set of three nucleotides that uniquely encodes one particular amino acid

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Peptide

A short string of amino acids. Longer strings of amino acids are called proteins

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Genome

All the genetic information that one specific individual has inherited

Also called genotype

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Gene expression

The process by which a cell makes an mRNA transcript of a particular gene

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Cell differentiation

The developmental stage in which cells squire distinctive characteristics, such as those of neurons, as the result of expressing particular genes

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Clones

Asexually produced organisms that are genetically identical

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DNA sequencing

The process by which the order of nucleotides in a gene is identified

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Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

A method for reproducing a particular RNA or DNA sequence manyfold, allowing amplification for sequencing or manipulating the sequence

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Transgenic

Referring to an animal in which a new or altered gene has been deliberately introduced into the genome

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Probe

In molecular biology, a manufactured sequence of DNA that is made to include a label (a colorful or radioactive molecule) that lets us track its location

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Gel electrophoresis

A method of separating molecules of differing size or electrical charge by forcing them to flow through a gel

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Blotting

Transferring DNA, RNA, or protein fragments to nitrocellulose following separation via gel electrophoresis. The blotted substance can then be labeled

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Southern blot

A method of detecting a particular DNA sequence in the genome of an organism, by separating DNA with gel electrophoresis, blotting the separated DNA molecules onto nitrocellulose, and then using a nucleotide probe to hybridize with, and highlight, the gene of interest

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Northern blot

A method for detecting a particular RNA transcript in a tissue or organ, by separating RNA from that source with gel electrophoresis, blotting the separated RNA molecules onto nitrocellulose, and then using a nucleotide probe to hybridize with, and highlight, the transcription of interest

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In situ hybridization

A method for detecting particular RNA transcripts in tissue sections by providing a nucleotide probe that is complementary to, and will therefore hybridize with, the transcript of interest

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Antibodies

A large protein that recognizes and permanently binds to particular shapes, normally as part of the immune system attack on foreign particles

Also called immunoglobulin

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Western blot

A method of detecting a particular protein molecule in a tissue or organ, by separating proteins from that source with gel electrophoresis, blotting the separated proteins onto nitrocellulose, and then using an antibody that binds, and highlights, the protein of interest

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Immunocytochemistry (ICC)

A method for detecting a particular protein in tissues in which an antibody recognizes and binds to the protein and then chemical methods are used to leave a visible reaction product around each antibody

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neuroleptics or antipsychotics

any of a class of antipsychotic drugs that alleviate symptoms of schizophrenia, typically by blocking dopamine receptors

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atypical neuroleptic

an antipsychotic drug that has actions other than or in addition to the dopamine D2 receptor antagonism that characterizes the typical neuroleptics

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antidepressant

a drug that relieves the symptoms of depression

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monoamine oxidase (MAO)

an enzyme that breaks down monoamine transmitters, thereby inactivating them

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tricyclic antidepressant

an antidepressant that acts by increasing the synaptic accumulation of serotonin and norepinephrine

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selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)

a drug that blocks the reuptake of transmitter at serotonergic synapses

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depressant

a drug that reduces the excitability of neurons

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barbiturate

an early anxiolytic drug and sleep aid that has depressant activity in the nerve system

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benzodiazepine

any of a class of anti anxiety drug that are agonists of GABAa receptors in the central nervous system

one example is diazepam (valium)

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opium

an extract of the seedpod juice of the opium poppy, palaver somniferum; drugs based on opium are potent painkillers

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morphine

an opiate compound derived from the poppy flower

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analgesic

having painkilling properties

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heroin

diacetylmorphine; an artificially modified, very potent form of morphine

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opioid receptor

a receptor that responds to endogenous opioids and/or exogenous opiates

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periaqueductal gray

the neuronal body–rich region of the midbrain surrounding the cerebral aqueduct that connects the third and fourth ventricles; it is involved in pain perception

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endogenous opioid

any of a class of opium-like peptide transmitters that have been called the body's own narcotics; the three kinds are enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins

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enkephalin

one of the three kinds of endogenous opioids

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endorphin

one of the three kinds of endogenous opioids

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dynorphin

one of the three kinds of endogenous opioids

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tobacco

a highly addictive North American plant whose leaves (usually dried and smoked) are a major source of nicotine

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nicotine

a compound found in plants, including tobacco, that acts as an agonist on a large class of cholinergic receptors

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stimulant

a drug that enhances the excitability of neurons

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alcohol

a neuroactive compound (primarily the ethyl alcohol found in various beverages) that first stimulates and then depresses neural activity, with varied behavioral consequences

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fetal alcohol syndrome

a disorder, including intellectual disability and characteristic facial abnormalities, that affects children exposed to too much alcohol (through maternal ingestion) during fetal development

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marijuana

a dried preparation of the cannabis sativa plant, usually smoked to obtain THC

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delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

the major active ingredient in marijuana

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endocannabinoid

an endogenous ligand of cannabinoid receptors; thus, an analog of marijuana that is produced by the brain

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anandamide

an endogenous substance that binds the cannabinoid receptor molecule

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caffeine

a stimulant compound found in coffee, cacao, and other plants

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cocaine

a drug of abuse, derived from the coca plant, that acts by enhancing catecholamine neurotransmission

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amphetamine

a molecule that resembles the structure of the catecholamine transmitters and enhances their activity

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hallucinogen

a drug that alters sensory perception and produces peculiar experiences

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LSD

lysergic acid diethyl amide, a hallucinogenic drug

also called acid

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MDMA

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, a drug of abuse

also called ecstasy

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dissociative

a type of drug that produces a dreamlike state in which consciousness is partly separated from sensory inputs

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withdrawal symptom

an uncomfortable symptom that arises when a person stops taking a drug that he or she has used frequently, especially at high doses

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dysphoria

unpleasant feelings; the opposite of euphoria

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dependence

a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms indicating that the individual continues use of the substance despite significant substance-related problems

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substance abuse

maladaptive patterns of substance use that has persisted for at least a month or occurred repeatedly

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nucleus accumbens

a region of the forebrain that receives dopaminergic innervation from the ventral segmental areas

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insula

a region of cortex lying below the surface, within the lateral sulcus, of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes