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Flashcards in chapter 5: the sensorimotor system Deck (80)
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1

receptor cell

a specialized cell that responds to a particular energy or substance in the internal or external environment, and converts this energy into a change in the electrical potential across its membrane

2

stimulus

a physical event that triggers a sensory response

3

labeled lines

the concept that each nerve input to the brain reports only a particular type of information

4

generator potential

a local change in the resting potential of a receptor cell that mediates between the impact of stimuli and the initiation of action potentials

5

sensory transduction

the process in which a receptor cell converts the energy in a into a change in the electrical potential across its membrane

6

Pacinian corpuscle or lamellate corpuscle

a skin receptor cell type that detects vibration and pressure

7

threshold

the stimulus intensity that is just adequate to trigger an action potential at the axon hillock

8

Meissner's corpuscle or tactile corpuscle

a skin receptor cell type that detects light touch, responding especially to changes in stimuli

9

Merkel's disc

a skin receptor type that detects light touch, responding especially to edges and isolated points on a surface

10

Ruffini corpuscle

a skin receptor cell type that detects stretching of the skin

11

free nerve ending

an axon that terminates in the skin and has no specialized cell associated with it; detect pain and/or changes in temperature

12

range fractionation

the means by which sensory systems covers wide range of intensity values as each sensory receptor cell specializes in just one part of the overall range of intensities

13

somatosensory system

a set of specialized receptors and neural mechanisms responsible for body sensations touch as touch and pain

14

receptive field

the stimulus region and features that affect the activity of a cell in a sensory system

15

adaptation

the progressive loss of receptor sensitivity as stimulation is maintained

16

phasic receptor

a receptor in which the frequency of action potentials drops rapidly as stimulation is maintained

17

tonic receptor

a receptor in which the frequency of action potentials declines slowly or not at all as stimulation is maintained

18

central modulation of sensory information

the process in which higher brain centers, such as the cortex and thalamus, suppress some sources of sensory information and amplify others

19

dorsal column system

a somatosensory system that delivers most touch stimuli via the dorsal columns of spinal white matter to the brain

20

dermatome

a strip of skin innervated by a particular spinal nerve

21

thalamus

the brain regions at the top of the brainstem that trade information with the cortex

22

primary sensory cortex

for a given sensory modality, the region of cortex that receives most of the information about that modality from the thalamus or, in the case of olfaction, directly from the secondary sensory neurons

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non primary sensory cortex

for a given sensory modality, the cortical regions receiving direct projections from primary sensory cortex for that modality

also called second sensory cortex

24

primary somatosensory cortex or somatosensory 1 (S1)

the gyrus just posterior to the central sulcus where sensory receptors on the body surface are mapped; primary cortex for receiving touch and pain information, is in the parietal lobe

25

polymodal neuron

a neuron upon which information from different sensory systems converges

26

synesthesia

a condition in which stimuli in one modality evoke the involuntary experience of an additional sensation in another modality

27

pain

the discomfort normally associated with tissue damage

28

nociceptor

a receptor that responds to stimuli (e.g., pain or changes in temperature) that produce tissue damage or pose the threat of damage

29

transient receptor potential 2 (TRP2)

a receptor, found in some free nerve endings, that opens its channel in response to rising temperatures

30

A delta (Ad) fiber

a moderately large, myelinated, and therefore fast-conducting axon, usually transmitting pain information