chapter 14: attention and consciousness Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 14: attention and consciousness Deck (49):
1

attention

a state or condition of selective awareness or perceptual receptivity, by which specific stimuli are selected for enhanced processing

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overt attention

attention in which the focus coincides with sensory orientation (looking at same thing you're attending to)

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covert attention

attention in which the focus can be directed independently of sensory orientation (looking at one thing while attending to something else)

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cocktail party effect

the selective enhancement of attention in order to filter out distracters, such as while listening to one person talking in the midst of a noisy party

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shadowing

a task in which the subject is asked to focus attention on one ear or the other while stimuli are being presented separately to both ears, and to repeat aloud the material presented to the attended ear

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inattentional blindness

the failure to perceive nonattended stimuli that seem so obvious as to be impossible to miss

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divided-attention task

a task in which the subject is asked to focus attention around the environment to highlight stimuli for enhanced processing

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attentional spotlight

the shifting of our limited selective attention around the environment to highlight stimuli for enhanced processing

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attentional bottleneck

a filter that results from the limits intrinsic to our attentional processes, with the result that only the most important stimuli are selected for special processing

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early-selection model of attention

a theory postulating that the attentional bottleneck imposed by the nervous system can exert control early in the processing pathway, filtering out stimuli before even preliminary perceptual analysis has occurred

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late-selection model of attention

a theory postulating that the attentional bottleneck imposed by the nervous system exerts control late in the processing pathway, filtering stimuli only after substantial analysis has occurred

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perceptual load

the immediate processing demands presented by a stimulus

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sustained-attention task

a task in which a single stimulus source or location must be held in the attentional spotlight for a protracted period

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endogenous attention

the voluntary direction of attention toward specific aspects of the environment, in accordance with our interests and goals

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symbolic cuing

a technique for testing endogenous attention in which a visual stimulus is presented and subjects are asked to respond as soon as the stimulus appears on the screen; each trial is preceded by a meaningful symbol used as a cue to hint at where the stimulus will appear

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exogenous attention

the involuntary reorienting of attention toward a specific stimulus source, cued by an unexpected object or event

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peripheral spatial cuing

a technique for testing exogenous attention in which a visual stimulus is preceded by a simple task-irrelevant sensory stimulus either in the location where the stimulus will appear or in an incorrect location

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inhibition of return

the phenomenon, observed in peripheral spatial cuing tasks and occurring when the interval between cue and target stimulus is 200 milliseconds or more, in which the detection of stimuli at the former location of the cue is increasingly impaired

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feature search

a search for an item in which the target pops out right away, because it possesses a unique attribute, no matter how many distractors are present

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conjunction search

a search for an item that is based on two or more features (e.g., size and color) that together distinguish the target from distracters that may share some of the same attributes

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binding problem

the question of how the brain understands which individual attributes blend together into a single object,t when these different features are processed by different regions in the brain

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temporal resolution

the ability to track changes in the brain that occur very quickly

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spatial resolution

the ability to observe the detailed structure of the brain

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event-related potential (ERP)

averaged EEG recordings measuring brain responses to repeated presentations of a stimulus; components of the ERP tend to be reliable because the background noise of the cortex has been averaged out

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auditory N1 effect

a negative deflection of the event-related potential, occurring about 100 milliseconds after stimulus presentation, that is enhanced for selectively attended auditory input compared to ignored input

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P20-50 effect

a positive deflection of the event-related potential, occurring about 20-50 milliseconds after stimulus presentation, that is associated with higher-order auditory stimulus processing and late attentional selection

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P3 effect

a positive deflection of the event-related potential, occurring about 300 milliseconds after stimulus presentation, that is associated with higher-order auditory stimulus processing and late attentional selection

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visual P1 effect

a positive deflection of the event-related potential, occurring 70-100 milliseconds after stimulus presentation, that is enhanced for selectively attended visual input compared to ignored input

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superior colliculus

a gray matter structure of the dorsal midbrain that processes visual information and is involved in direction of visual gaze and visual attention to intended stimuli

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pulvinar

in humans, the posterior portion of the thalamus; heavily involved in visual processing and direction of attention

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lateral intraparietal area (LIP)

a region in the monkey parietal lobe, homologous to the human intraparietal sulcus, that is especially involved in voluntary, top-down control of attention

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intraparietal sulcus (IPS)

a region in the human parietal lobe, homologous to the monkey lateral intraparietal area, that is especially involved in voluntary, top-down control of attention

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frontal eye field (FEF)

an area in the frontal lobe of the brain that contains neurons important for establishing gaze in accordance with cognitive goals (top-down processes) rather than with any characteristics of stimuli (bottom-up processes)

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temporoparietal junction (TPJ)

the point in the brain where the temporal and parietal lobes meet; plays a role in shifting attention to a new location after target onset

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hemispatial neglect

failure to pay any attention to objects presented to one side of the body; patients exhibiting this symptom may even deny connection with that side

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Balint's syndrome

a disorder, caused by damage to both parietal lobes, that is characterized by difficulty in steering visual gaze (oculomotor ataxia), in accurately reaching for objects using visual guidance (optic ataxia), and in directing attention to more than one object or feature at a time (simultagnosia)

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simultagnosia

a profound restriction of attention, often limited to a single item or feature

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progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)

a rare, degenerative disease of the brain that begins with marked, persistent visual symptoms and leads to more widespread intellectual deterioration

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attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

a syndrome characterized by distractibility, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity, that, in children, interferes with school performance

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consciousness

the state of awareness of one's own existence, thoughts, emotions, and experiences

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cognitively impenetrable

involving basic neural processing operations that cannot be experienced through introspection – that is, that are unconscious

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easy problem of consciousness

understanding how particular patterns of neural activity create specific conscious experiences by reading brain activity directly from people's brains as they're having particular experiences

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hard problem of consciousness

understanding the brain processes that produce people's subjective experiences of their conscious perceptions – that is, their qualia

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quale

a purely subjective experience of perception

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free will

the feeling that our conscious self is the author of our actions and decisions

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neuroeconomics

the study of brain mechanisms at work during economic decision making

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prefrontal cortex

the anteriormost region of the frontal lobe

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executive function

a neural and cognitive system that helps develop plans of action and organizes the activities of other high-level processing systems

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perseverate

to continue to show a behavior repeatedly