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Flashcards in chapter 12: psychopathology Deck (42):
1

delusion

false belief that is strongly held in spite of contrary evidence

2

schizophrenia

a severe psychopathological disorder characterized by negative symptoms such as emotional withdrawal and impoverished thought, and by positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions

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positive symptom

in psychiatry, an abnormal behavior state; examples include hallucinations, delusions, and excited motor behavior

4

negative symptom

in psychiatry, an abnormality that reflects insufficient functioning; examples include emotional and social withdrawal, blunted affect, and slow and impoverished thought and speech

5

monozygotic

referring to twins derived from a single fertilized egg (identical twins); share an identical set of genes

6

dizygotic

referring to twins derived from separate eggs (fraternal twins); no more closely genetically related than other full siblings

7

concordance

a characteristic that is seen in both individuals of a pair of twins

8

hypofrontality hypothesis

the idea that schizophrenia may reflect underactivation of the frontal lobes

9

lobotomy

the surgical separation of a portion of the frontal lobes from the rest of the brain, once used as a treatment for schizophrenia and many other ailments

10

chlorpromazine

an antipsychotic drug that replaced lobotomy as a treatment for schizophrenia; trade name Thorazine

11

antipsychotic or neuroleptic

any of a class of drugs that alleviate symptoms of schizophrenia, typically by blocking dopamine receptors

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dopamine hypothesis

the idea that schizophrenia results from either excessive levels of synaptic dopamine or excessive postsynaptic sensitivity to dopamine

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amphetamine psychosis

a delusional and psychotic state, closely resembling acute schizophrenia, that is brought on by repeated use of high doses of amphetamine

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dyskinesia

maladaptive motor symptoms that can result from traditional antipsychotic drugs, are permanent

15

tardive dyskinesia

repetitive, involuntary movements, especially involving the face, mouth, lips, and tongue

16

super-sensitivity psychosis

marked increase in positive symptoms of schizophrenia after discontinuation or lowered dosage of traditional antipsychotic drugs as a result of dopamine receptor super-sensitivity

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typical neuroleptic

an antischizophrenic drug that shows antagonist activity at dopamine D2 receptors

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atypical neuroleptic

an antipsychotic drug that has actions other than or in addition to the dopamine D2 receptor antagonism that characterizes the typical neuroleptics

19

clozapine

an atypical neuroleptic, selectively blocks serotonin receptors

20

phencyclidine (PCP)

an anesthetic drug that is also a psychedelic drug; PCP makes many people feel dissociated from themselves and their environment

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psychotomimetic

a drug that induces a state resembling schizophrenia

22

ketamine

a dissociative anesthetic drug, similar to PCP, that acts as an NMDA receptor antagonist

23

glutamate hypothesis

the idea that schizophrenia may be caused, in part, by understimulation of glutamate receptors

24

depression

a psychiatric condition characterized by such symptoms as unhappy mood; loss of interests, energy, and appetite; and difficulty concentrating

25

unipolar depression

depression that alternates with normal emotional states

26

electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT)

a last-resort treatment for unmanageable depression in which a strong electrical current is passed through the brain, causing a seizure

27

monoamine oxidase (MAO)

an enzyme that breaks down and thereby inactivates monoamine transmitters

28

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)

a drug that blocks the reuptake of transmitter at serotonergic synapses; commonly used to treat depression

29

deep brain stimulation (DBS)

mild electrical stimulation through an electrode that is surgically implanted deep in the brain

30

cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)

psychotherapy aimed at correcting negative thinking and consciously changing behaviors as a way of changing feelings (more effective when combined with SSRI drugs)

31

postpartum depression

a bout of depression that afflicts a woman either immediately before or after giving birth

32

learned helplessness

a learning paradigm in which individuals are subjected to inescapable, unpleasant conditions

33

bipolar disorder

a psychiatric disorder characterized by periods of depression that alternate with excessive, expansive moods

34

lithium

an element that, administered to patients, often relieves the symptoms of bipolar disorder

35

anxiety disorder

any of a class of psychological disorders that include recurrent panic states, generalized persistent anxiety disorders, and post traumatic stress disorder

36

benzodiazepine

any of a class of anti anxiety drugs that are agonists of GABA receptors in the central nervous system; one example is diazepam (valium)

37

anxiolytic

a substance that is used to combat anxiety; examples include alcohol, opiates, barbiturates, and the benzodiazepines

38

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

a disorder in which memories of an unpleasant episode repeatedly plague the victim

39

fear conditioning

a form of learning in which fear comes to be associated with a previously neutral stimulus

40

obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

an anxiety disorder in which the affected individual experiences recurrent unwanted thoughts and engages in repetitive behaviors without reason or the ability to stop

41

co-morbid

referring to the tendency of certain diseases or disorders to occur together in individuals

42

Tourette's syndrome

heightened sensitivity to tactical, auditory, and visual stimuli, have behavioral tics such as a twitch or vocalization (compulsions); caused by overstimulation of dopamine receptors