chapter 8: hormones and sex Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 8: hormones and sex Deck (99)
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1

cloacal exstrophy

a rare medical condition in which XY individuals are born completely lacking a penis

2

hormone

a chemical secreted by an endocrine gland that is conveyed by the bloodstream and regulates target organs or tissues

3

endocrine gland

a gland that secretes products into the bloodstream to act on distant targets

4

castration

removal of the gonads, usually the testes

5

endocrine

referring to the glands that release chemicals to the interior of the body; secrete the principal hormones used by the body

6

synapse

the cellular location at which information is transmitted from a neuron to another cell

7

pheromone

a chemical signal that is released outside the body of an animal and affects other members of the same species

8

allomone

a chemical signal that is released outside the body by one species and affects the behavior of other species

9

protein hormone or peptide hormone

a hormone that consists of a string of amino acids

10

amine hormone

a hormone composed of a single amino acid that has been modified into a related molecule, such as melatonin or epinephrine; also called monoamine hormone

11

steroid hormone

any of a class of hormones, each of which is composed of four interconnected rings of carbon atoms

12

second messenger

a slow-acting substance in a target cell that amplifies the effects of synaptic or hormonal activity and regulates activity within the target cell

13

knockout organism

deleting a gene for a given hormone receptor to learn what behaviors are affected by that hormone

14

pituitary gland

a small, complex endocrine gland located in a socket at the base of the skull

15

pituitary stalk

a thin piece of tissue that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus

16

neuroendocrine cell

a neuron that releases hormones into local or systematic circulation

17

posterior pituitary

the rear division of the pituitary gland

18

oxytocin

a hormone, released from the posterior pituitary, that triggers milk letdown in the nursing female

19

arginine vasopressin (AVP) or vasopressin

a peptide hormone from the posterior pituitary that promotes water conservation and increases blood pressure; also called antidiuretic hormone

20

milk letdown reflex

the reflexive release of milk by the mammary glands of a nursing female in response to suckling, or to stimuli associated with suckling

21

pair-bond

a durable and exclusive relationship between a male and a female

22

negative feedback

the property by which some of the output of a system feeds back to reduce the effect of input signals

23

anterior pituitary

the front division of the pituitary gland;it secretes tropic hormones

24

tropic hormone

any of a class of anterior pituitary hormones that affect the secretion of hormones by other endocrine glands

25

releasing hormone

any of a class of hormones, produced in the hypothalamus, that traverse the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system to control the pituitary's release of tropic hormones

26

median eminence

a midline feature on the base of the brain that marks the point at which the pituitary stalk exits the hypothalamus to connect to the pituitary; contains elements of the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system

27

growth hormone (GH)

a tropic hormone, secreted by the anterior pituitary, that influences the growth of cells and tissues; also called somatotropin or somatotropin hormone

28

gonad

any of the sexual organs (ovaries and testes), which produce gametes for reproduction

29

gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

a hypothalamic hormone that controls the release of luteinizing hormones and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary

30

gonadotropin

an anterior pituitary hormone that selectively stimulates the cells of the gonads to produce sex steroids and gametes