chapter 9: homeostasis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 9: homeostasis Deck (48):
1

homeostasis

the active process of maintaining a particular physiological parameter relatively constant

2

motivation

the psychological process that induces or sustains a particular behavior

3

endotherm

an animal whose body temperature is regulated chiefly by internal metabolic processes (mammals, birds)

4

ectotherm

an animal whose body temperature is regulated by, and whose heat comes mainly from, the environment (snakes, bees)

5

negative feedback

the property by which some of the output of a system feeds back to reduce the effect of input signals

6

set point

the point of reference in a feedback system; like the temperature at which a thermostat is set

7

set zone

the range of a variable that a feedback system tries to maintain

8

intracellular compartment

the fluid space of the body that is contained within cells

9

extracellular compartment

the fluid space of the body that exists outside the cells

10

diffusion

the spontaneous spread of solute molecules through a solvent until a uniform solute concentration is achieved

11

osmosis

the passive movement of a solvent, usually water, through a semipermeable membrane until a uniform concentration of solute (often salt) is achieved on both sides of the membrane

12

osmotic pressure

the tendency of a solvent to move across a membrane in order to equalize the concentration of solute on both sides of the membrane

13

hypovolemic thirst

a desire to ingest fluid that is stimulated by a reduction in volume of the extracellular fluid

14

osmotic thirst

a desire to ingest fluids that is stimulated by loss of water from the extracellular compartment

15

baroreceptor

a pressure receptor in the heart or a major artery that detects a change in blood pressure

16

atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

a hormone, secreted by the heart, that normally reduces blood pressure, inhibits drinking, and promotes the excretion of water and salt at the kidneys

17

arginine vasopressin

a peptide hormone from the posterior pituitary that promotes water conservation and increases blood pressure; also called antidiuretic hormone

18

angiotensin II

a hormone that is produced in the blood by the action of renin and that may play a role in the control of thirst

19

circumventricular organ

any of multiple distinct sites that lie in the wall of a cerebral ventricle and monitor the composition of the cerebrospinal fluid

20

aldosterone

a mineralocorticoid hormone, secreted by the adrenal cortex, that promotes the conservation of sodium by the kidneys

21

nutrient

a chemical that is needed for growth, maintenance, and repair of the body but is not used as a source of energy

22

glucose

an important sugar molecule used by the body and brain for energy

23

glycogen

a complex carbohydrate made by the combining of glucose molecules for a short-term store of energy

24

insulin

a pancreatic hormone that lowers blood glucose, promotes energy storage, and facilitates glucose utilization by cells

25

glucagon

a pancreatic hormone that converts glycogen to glucose, and thus increases blood glucose

26

lipid

a large molecule (commonly called fat) that consists of fatty acids and glycerol that are insoluble in water

27

adipose tissue

tissue made up of fat cells; fat tissue

28

ketone

a compound, liberated by the breakdown of body fats and proteins, that is a metabolic fuel source

29

basal metabolism

the consumption of energy to fuel processes such as heat production, maintenance of membrane potentials, and all the other basic life-sustaining functions of the body

30

diabetes mellitus

a condition, characterized by excessive glucose in the blood and urine and by reduced glucose utilization by body cells, that is caused by the failure of insulin to induce glucose absorption

31

glucodetector

a specialized type of liver cell that detects and informs the nervous system about levels of circulating glucose

32

ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)

a hypothalamic region involved in eating and sexual behaviors

33

lateral hypothalamus (LH)

a hypothalamic region involved in the control of appetite and other functions

34

arcuate nucleus

an arc-shaped hypothalamic nucleus implicated in appetite control

35

leptin

a peptide hormone released by fat cells

36

ghrelin

a peptide hormone produced and released by the gut

37

PYY3-36

a peptide hormone, secreted by the intestines, that probably acts on hypothalamic appetite control mechanisms to suppress appetite

38

NPY neuron

a neuron, involved in the hypothalamic appetite control system, that produces both neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide

39

POMC neuron

a neuron, involved in the hypothalamic appetite control system, that produces both pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript

40

orexin

a neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus that is involved in the switching between sleep states, in narcolepsy, and in the control of appetite; also called hypocretin

41

nucleus of the solitary tract (NST)

a complicated brainstem nucleus that receives visceral and taste information via several cranial nerves

42

cholecystokinin (CCK)

a peptide hormone that is released by the gut after ingestion of food that is high in protein and/or fat

43

endocannabinoid

an endogenous ligand of cannabinoid receptors; thus, a marijuana analog that is produced by the brain

44

liposuction

the surgical removal of fat tissue

45

bariatric

having to do with obesity

46

anorexia nervosa

a syndrome in which individuals severely deprive themselves of food

47

bulimia nervosa

a syndrome in which individuals periodically gorge themselves, usually with "junk food," and then either vomit or take laxatives to avoid weight gain

48

binge eating

the rapid intake of large quantities of food, often poor in nutritional value and high in calories