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Flashcards in chapter 9: homeostasis Deck (48)
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1

homeostasis

the active process of maintaining a particular physiological parameter relatively constant

2

motivation

the psychological process that induces or sustains a particular behavior

3

endotherm

an animal whose body temperature is regulated chiefly by internal metabolic processes (mammals, birds)

4

ectotherm

an animal whose body temperature is regulated by, and whose heat comes mainly from, the environment (snakes, bees)

5

negative feedback

the property by which some of the output of a system feeds back to reduce the effect of input signals

6

set point

the point of reference in a feedback system; like the temperature at which a thermostat is set

7

set zone

the range of a variable that a feedback system tries to maintain

8

intracellular compartment

the fluid space of the body that is contained within cells

9

extracellular compartment

the fluid space of the body that exists outside the cells

10

diffusion

the spontaneous spread of solute molecules through a solvent until a uniform solute concentration is achieved

11

osmosis

the passive movement of a solvent, usually water, through a semipermeable membrane until a uniform concentration of solute (often salt) is achieved on both sides of the membrane

12

osmotic pressure

the tendency of a solvent to move across a membrane in order to equalize the concentration of solute on both sides of the membrane

13

hypovolemic thirst

a desire to ingest fluid that is stimulated by a reduction in volume of the extracellular fluid

14

osmotic thirst

a desire to ingest fluids that is stimulated by loss of water from the extracellular compartment

15

baroreceptor

a pressure receptor in the heart or a major artery that detects a change in blood pressure

16

atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

a hormone, secreted by the heart, that normally reduces blood pressure, inhibits drinking, and promotes the excretion of water and salt at the kidneys

17

arginine vasopressin

a peptide hormone from the posterior pituitary that promotes water conservation and increases blood pressure; also called antidiuretic hormone

18

angiotensin II

a hormone that is produced in the blood by the action of renin and that may play a role in the control of thirst

19

circumventricular organ

any of multiple distinct sites that lie in the wall of a cerebral ventricle and monitor the composition of the cerebrospinal fluid

20

aldosterone

a mineralocorticoid hormone, secreted by the adrenal cortex, that promotes the conservation of sodium by the kidneys

21

nutrient

a chemical that is needed for growth, maintenance, and repair of the body but is not used as a source of energy

22

glucose

an important sugar molecule used by the body and brain for energy

23

glycogen

a complex carbohydrate made by the combining of glucose molecules for a short-term store of energy

24

insulin

a pancreatic hormone that lowers blood glucose, promotes energy storage, and facilitates glucose utilization by cells

25

glucagon

a pancreatic hormone that converts glycogen to glucose, and thus increases blood glucose

26

lipid

a large molecule (commonly called fat) that consists of fatty acids and glycerol that are insoluble in water

27

adipose tissue

tissue made up of fat cells; fat tissue

28

ketone

a compound, liberated by the breakdown of body fats and proteins, that is a metabolic fuel source

29

basal metabolism

the consumption of energy to fuel processes such as heat production, maintenance of membrane potentials, and all the other basic life-sustaining functions of the body

30

diabetes mellitus

a condition, characterized by excessive glucose in the blood and urine and by reduced glucose utilization by body cells, that is caused by the failure of insulin to induce glucose absorption