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Flashcards in chapter 1: introduction Deck (21):
1

Neuroscience

The scientific study of the nervous system

2

Biological psychology

The study of the biological bases of psychological processes and behavior

Also called behavior neuroscience, brain and behavior, and physiological psychology

3

Dualism

The notion, promoted by René Descartes, that the mind has an immaterial aspect that is distinct from the material body and brain

4

Phrenology

The belief that bumps on the skull reflect enlargements of brain regions responsible for certain behavior faculties

5

Localization of function

The concept that different brain regions specialize in specific behaviors

6

Theoretical perspectives of biological psychologists

1) Systematic description of behavior
2) The evolution of brain and behavior
3) Life-span development of the brain and behavior
4) The biological mechanisms of behavior

7

Ontogeny

The process by which an individual changes in the course of its lifetime - that is, grows up and grows old

8

Neuron

The basic unit of the nervous system; also called nerve cell

9

Neural plasticity

The ability of the nervous system to change in response to experience or the environment

Also called neuro plasticity

10

Adult neurogenesis

The creation of new neurons in the brain of an adult

11

Social neuroscience

A field of study that uses the tools of neuroscience to discover the biological bases of social behavior, and the effects of social circumstances on brain activity

12

Evolutionary psychology

A field of study devoted to asking how natural selection has shaped behavior in humans and other animals

13

Epigenetics

The study of factors that affect gene expression without making any changes in the nucleotide sequence of genes themselves

14

Gene expression

The turning on or off of specific genes

15

Neuroeconomics

The study of brain mechanisms at work during economic decision making

16

Consciousness

The state of awareness of one's own experience, thoughts, emotions, and experiences

17

Somatic intervention

An approach to find in relations between body variables and behavioral variables that involves manipulating body structure or function and looking for resultant changes in behavior

18

Behavior intervention

An approach to finding relations between body variables and behavioral variables that involves intervening in the behavior of an organism and looking for resultant changes in body structure or function

19

Correlation

The covariation of two variables; says nothing about causality

Negative correlation: one goes up, the other goes down (not correlated)

Positive correlation: both increase or decrease together

20

Reductionism

The scientific strategy of breaking a system down into increasingly smaller parts in order to understand it

21

Levels of analysis

The scope of experimental approaches

Understand behavior by monitoring molecules, nerve cells, brain regions, or social environments, or using some combination of these levels of analysis