chapter 4: chemistry of behavior Flashcards Preview

Biopsych > chapter 4: chemistry of behavior > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 4: chemistry of behavior Deck (50)
Loading flashcards...
1

Exogenous

Arising from outside the body

2

Endogenous

Produced inside the body

3

Presynaptic

Located on the "transmitting" side of a synapse

4

Synapse

The location at which information flows between a presynaptic neuron and a postsynaptic neuron, often through the conversion of electrical activity in the presynaptic neuron into a secretion of chemical neurotransmitter that alters the functioning of the postsynaptic neuron

5

Exocytosis

A cellular process that results in the release of a substance into the extracellular space

6

Neurotransmitter

A signaling chemical, released by a presynaptic neuron, that diffuses across the synaptic cleft to alter the functioning of the postsynaptic neuron

7

Neurotransmitter receptor

A specialized protein that is embedded in the cell membrane, allowing it to selectively sense and react to molecules of the corresponding neurotransmitter

8

Postsynaptic

Located on the "receiving" side of a synapse

9

Reuptake

The reabsorption of molecules of neurotransmitter by the neurons that released them, thereby ending the signaling activity of the transmitter molecules

10

Transporter

A specialized membrane component that returns transmitter molecules to the presynaptic neuron for reuse

11

Ionotropic receptor

A receptor protein containing an ion channel that opens when the receptor is bound by an an agonist

Also called ligand-gated ion channel

12

Metabotropic receptor

A receptor protein that does not contain ion channels but may, when activated, use a G protein system to open nearby ion channels or to produce other cellular effects

13

Amine neurotransmitter

A neurotransmitter based on modifications of a single amino acid nucleus. Examples include acetylcholine, serotonin, and dopamine

14

Amino acid neurotransmitter

A neurotransmitter that is itself an amino acid. Examples include GABA, glycine, and glutamate

15

Peptide neurotransmitter

A neurotransmitter consisting of a short chain of amino acids

Also called neuropeptide

16

Gas neurotransmitter

A neurotransmitter that is a soluble gas. Examples include nitric oxide and carbon monoxide

17

Acetylcholine (ACh)

A neurotransmitter found in the autonomic nervous system, motor systems, and throughout the brain

18

Cholinergic

Referring to cells that use acetylcholine as their synaptic transmitter

19

Basal forebrain

A region, ventral to the basal ganglia, that is the major source of acetylcholine in the brain

20

Dopamine (DA)

A monoamine transmitter found in the midbrain – especially the substantial nigra – and in the basal forebrain

21

Dopaminergic

Referring to cells that use dopamine as their synaptic transmitter

22

Substantia nigra

A brainstem structure that innervates the basal ganglia and is the source of all dopaminergic projections

23

Ventral tegmental area (VTA)

A portion of the midbrain that projects dopaminergic fibers to the nucleus accumbens

24

Serotonergic

Referring to cells that use serotonin as their synaptic transmitter

25

Raphe nuclei

A string of nuclei in the midline of the midbrain and brainstem that contain most of the serotonergic neurons of the brain

26

Serotonin (5-HT)

A synaptic transmitter that is produced in the raphe nuclei and is active in structures throughout the cerebral hemispheres

27

Noradrenergic

Referring to cells using norepinephrine (noradrenaline) as a transmitter

28

Norepinephrine (NE)

A neurotransmitter that is produced and released by sympathetic postganglionic neurons to accelerate organ activity. It is also produced in the brainstem and found in projections throughout the brain

Also called noradrenaline

29

Locus coeruleus

A small nucleus in the brainstem whose neurons produce norepinephrine and modulate large areas of the forebrain

30

Lateral tegmental area

A brainstem region that provide some of the norepinephrine-containing projections of the brain