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Flashcards in Attribution Deck (32):
1

Attribution Theory

rooted in social psych and attempts to explain how individuals view behavior, both our own and others

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Dispositional Attribution

attribute behavior to internal causes

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Situational Attribution

attribute behavior to external causes

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How do we attribute behavior?

through consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus

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Fundamental Attribution Error

Underestimate impact of situation and overestimate impact of a person's character or quality. blame behavior on the internal factors

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Actor-Observer Bias

tendency to blame our actions on the situation and blame actions of others on personalities.

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Self Serving Bias

tendency to attribute success to ourselves and failures to others or external environment

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Optimism Bias

belief that bad things happen to other people but not us

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Just World Phenomenon

World is fair and people get what they deserve. Good/bad things happen because of actions

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Halo Effect

tendency to believe people have inherently good or bad natures rather than looking at individual characteristics

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Physical Attractiveness Stereotype

Specific type of halo effect; people tend to rate attractive individuals more favorable for personality traits and characteristics that they do for those who are less attractive

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Social Cognition

Ability of brain to store and process information regarding social perception

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False Consensus

when we assume everyone agrees with what we do

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Projection Bias

When we assume others have same beliefs as we do

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Stereotypes

oversimplified ideas about groups of people, based on characteristics

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Prejudice

thoughts, attitudes, and feelings someone holds about a group of people that are not based on experience

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Discrimination

The way someone treats a group of people due to beliefs

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Illusory Correlation

attributing one trait of a famous individual to a group and generalizing to everyone in the group (Since MJ is good at basketball, all black people are good at basketball)

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Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

behaviors that affirm original stereotypes

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Stereotype Threat

self-fulfilling fear that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype

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Cultural Relativism

judging another culture based on its own standards

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Aggregate

People who exist in same place but do not interact or share common sense of identity

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Group

Actively interact in same place sharing norms, values, and expectations

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Category

people who share similar characteristics but are not tied together

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Primary Groups

play a more important role in individual's life. Usually smaller. more emotional, long term connection

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Secondary Groups

larger and impersonal and may interact for specific reasons for shorter periods of time. Pragmatic needs

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Social Facilitation Effect

do better on simple tasks in presence of other people

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Deindividuation

High degree of arousal and very low sense of responsibility results in different behavior than usual due to larger group, masking, or arousing activities

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Group Polarization

leads one side to the extreme by informational and normative influences

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Informational Influence

Ideas that occur are the ones with the dominant viewpoint

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Normative Influence

accepted ideas in group polarization are due to social desirability

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Social Comparison

evaluating opinions and comparing them to others