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Flashcards in Attribution Theory Deck (22):
0

Attributions are the reason we:

Give for the outcome of an event

1

Attributions are important because they hint the underlying beliefs of the players and coaches about the:

Reasons for success or failure and knowing these can help when preparing for the next contest

2

Attribution is closely linked to:

Motivation

3

Process of attributing performance to specific causes has 3 stages:

Awareness of performance/behaviour
Accept that behaviour was intentional
Accept the behaviour is caused either by internal factors or external

4

4 categories to attribution theory:

Ability
Effort
Luck
Task difficulty

5

2 dimensions to attribution theory:

Casualty (internal or external)
Stability (stable or unstable)

6

Third dimension added:

Controllability

7

Self-serving bias is when we protect our self-esteem, confidence and motivation by:

Crediting external factors to loss
Attributing our success to internal factors when we win

8

Attributing our success to:

Internal factors will develop our self-esteem (become more motivated)
Stable factors will develop our self-esteem and we are likely to become increasingly motivated

9

Attributing our failures to:

Internal factors - believe we don't have the ability and therefore may give up

Stable factors - lower our self-esteem and motivation to continue as we will see our failures as something that can't be changed

10

Performers are encouraged to:

View failure as a result of factors that are unstable and can be changed - prevents damage to self-esteem

11

Coaches will also refer to:

External factors as an attribution for loss which are beyond performer's control

12

Learned helplessness is the state that occurs when a performer believes that...

Failure is inevitable and that they have no way of changing that outcome

13

5 characteristics of learned helplessness are:

-Performer believes that they have limited ability
-Performer focused on outcome goals
-Performer is unwilling to try new skills or situations, believing that the skills will not work or that they cannot do it
-Performer attributes level of performance to stable, uncontrollable factors
-Performer do not believe that the things they have control over (effort) will make any difference

14

Two types of learned helplessness are:

GENERAL (GLOBAL)

SPECIFIC

15

Global LH is when

A person attributes failure to internal/stable factors

Applied to ALL sports

16

Specific LH is when a person

Attributes failure to internal/stable factors

Applied to ONE sport

17

Attribution retraining are

Methods of helping the performer to change the way that they explain the causes of success and failure

18

In attribution retraining the performer is helped to look at

How they explain success or failure

19

(AR) performers are encouraged to focus on explanation which allow

Future success, participation and motivation

20

(AR) In particulate they learn to attribute failure to factors which they have

Control of that are EXTERNAL and that are UNSTABLE

21

5 specific strategies that a coach could use to change their attributions are:

-Observe and listen to what players are saying - monitor their attributions
-Draw attention to progression/change
-Focus on process, task and mastery goals rather than outcome goals
-Collect and use statistics about a player's contribution this will allow changes to be noted and future attainable targets set
-Try and ensure initial success to avoid LH