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Flashcards in Personality Deck (34)
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1

What is personality?

The sum total of an individual's characteristics, which make them unique

2

What are the 2 theories?

Trait
Interactionist

3

What is the trait theory

Suggests that we act a certain way because we are born with a series of traits, inherited from our parents

4

Trait theory states that everyone has 2 main traits:

Stable or Neurotic
Introvert or Extrovert

5

Problems with trait theory

Too simple
Fails to recognise that people change
Fails to recognise that people have different personalities to their parents
Too general
Fails to recognise the effects of environmental situations
Validity- produces a limited view of what personality is

6

What is the interactionist theory

Our personality depends on our inherited traits and the environment and situation we find ourselves in
Social learning - tend to have similar traits to significant others

7

What is Lewin's formula:

B=f(P.E)

8

What does Lewin's formula stand for:

Behaviour is a function of our Personality traits and the Environment in which we find ourselves

9

What is Hollander's model:

Social environment (behaviour/expectations of others affects our role)
Role-related behaviour (behave differently due to emotions - most changeable aspect)
Typical behaviour (way an individual responds in a certain situation)
Psychological core (beliefs & values that remain constant)

10

What does Hollander's model suggest?

That our personality is a layered structure

11

Interactionist theory tells us:

our behaviour will be predictable in a particular environment
Individuals behaviour can change in different environments
Why different people act differently in the same situation
Traits differ they will act differently in the same environment

12

3 ways to measure personality:

Questionnaires
Observations
Interviews

13

Positives of questionnaires:

Cheap/easy
fairly reliable
can be used almost anywhere
produce a large amount of data that can be analysed

14

Negatives of questionnaires:

Questions hard to answer accurately
Difficult to assess personality
Validity: unsure what personality is

15

Positives of observations:

Produce personality profiles to compare to others
Able to operate as they naturally(in real life situations)

16

Negatives of observations:

More expensive
time consuming
may have low validity as participant may know they're being observed - behaviour affected

17

Positives of interviews:

Greater validity than questionnaire
can uncover issues with individuals as answers are not limited to yes-no

18

Negatives of interviews:

Lower reliability than questionnaire
Very expensive and time consuming

19

Profile of mood states (POMS) is designed to measure:

Tension
Depression
Anger
Vigour
Fatigue
Confusion

20

POMS is based on:

moods rather than traits of those who participate in sport

21

Problems with POMS:

Not applicable to all athletes
Not every elite athlete in every sport will show the iceburg profile

22

What does POMS show:

Successful athletes tend to score higher on vigour
^ tend to score lower on tension, depression, anger, fatigue and confusion
^ show iceburg profile - if an athlete doesnt show it then there may be something wrong with the preparation of the performer, e.g. overtrained

23

Personality for team sports:

extroverts and neurotic

24

Personality for solo sports:

introverts and stable

25

Athletes tend to be competitive and outgoing and have high self-confidence - personality testing might be able to identify:

those who may go on to achieve

26

What is achievement motivation?

an individual's behaviour is determined by their interaction with the environment and their desire to succeed
TYPE OF INTERACTIONIST THEORY

27

2 types of motives:

motive to achieve
motive to avoid failure

28

Achievement motivation theory suggests that:

we have within our personalities a need to achieve or a need to avoid failure (traits)

29

a nAch personality is:

someone who has a greater need to achieve
they appear to seek out competitive situations and show 'approach behaviours'

30

a Naf personality is:

someone who seems intent on avoiding competitive situations because they have a need to avoid failure
show 'avoidance behaviours'