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Flashcards in Group Success Deck (42):
0

A group is:

2 or more individuals that interact with each other
Interdependent, social relationship, share a common objective
Sense of group identity and share norms and values

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6 characteristics of a successful group:

Strong collective identity
Communicate effectively
Opportunity to socialise
Strong cohesion
Value relationships
Successful coach or leader who ensures that members are valued

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Tuckman's model composed of:

4 stages of group development

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Tuckman's model suggested that:

Groups have to go through each of the stages in a process of development and as a consequence the NORMS, ROLES, INDIVIDUAL RELATIONSHIPS and EFFECTS on each other CHANGE & EVOLVE before they can become successful

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Stage 1 =

Forming

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Forming =

Group members get to know each other

Find out task or objective of group

Show respect for one another

Coach tells them what to do

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Stage 2=

Storming

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Storming =

Group members argue and compete with each other

Alliance form

Different types of leaders emerge

Inexperienced group members refuse to compromise

A team may fail

Coach must drive the team through the stage

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Stage 3=

Norming

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Norming=

Group members agree how to work together

Rules are developed/accepted and behaviour defined

Development of trust, the ability to accept criticism and new ideas are developed

Leaders emerge and start to take responsibility for decision making

Coach becomes a consultant

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Stage 4=

Performing

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Performing =

Group works as a unit

Experienced, skilled and knowledgeable team members are able to make decision independently

Consultation is expected and devotion is devolved

Disagreement used to strengthen relationships

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Groups may revert due to 2 reasons:

Change of coach or captain

Retirement of experienced members of the group

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Stage 5=

Mourning

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Mourning =

When the team breaks up because the task has been completed

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Cohesion is

The dynamic forces that cause a team to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of goals and objectives

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Successful teams are often described as being very

Cohesive

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Carron felt that individuals choose to stay together because either:

They find the group attractive and value being a member

The group helps them achieve an objective

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2 categories of cohesion:

Task cohesion

Social cohesion

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Task cohesion =

Found in a group that is bound together because of the drive to achieve a common goal

team works together to achieve a goal

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Social cohesion=

Found in a group that is bound together by social bonds, social attractiveness and relationships

Team works together because they like each other

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Task cohesiveness is far more important than..

Social cohesiveness when it comes to success

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Antecedents are

Things that come before or that are pre-existing

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Carron proposed that there are 4 key antecedents to the development of cohesiveness

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
PERSONAL FACTORS
LEADERSHIP-BASED
TEAM-BASED

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Environmental factors =

Group size

Age

Geography

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Personal factors =

Similarity

Gender

Satisfaction/Aspirations

Dissimilarity

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Leadership-based =

Leadership behaviour/styles

Leader-team relationships

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Team-based =

Focus on task/desire to succeed

Team ability/stability/productivity

Share experiences - win/lose

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Strategies that a leader can ensure team cohesion are:

Maintain open communication channel

Set challenging but realistic individual and team goals

Strive for commitment by all being involved in goal setting

Set and strive for agreed norms of behaviour

Ensure role charity

Provide evidence of the value of each member

Reward exceptional individual contributions

Use team meetings to resolve conflict

Create a sense of distinctiveness

Encourage self-sacrifice

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Faulty group processes- Steiner produced the following formula

Actual productivity =

Potential productivity - losses due to faulty processes

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(FP) actual productivity =

How well they do

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(FP) potential productivity =

Or effectiveness of a team is based on the collective nature of its talents

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(FP) losses due to FP=

Refers to aspects: lack of coordination, poor communication, co-operation, poor strategies and loos of motivation

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2 main faulty processes:

Lack of co-ordination
(Groups timings or strategies don't function well - during set moves, due to lack of cooperation and communication)

Lack of motivation
(Loss of concentration, self-confidence

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Sports that require higher levels of co-ordination and motivation are most likely to suffer if they have a..

Faulty process

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The Ringlemann effect=

As group size increases, we see a decrease in motivation and cohesion

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(RE) as group grows larger, the contribution from individuals...

Reduces

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(RE) people seem to work less hard in a group than they do on their own, possibly due to...

Social loafing

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Social loafing =

Performer 'hides' in a team

Performance drop was due to motivational losses

Others feel that not everyone is working as hard as them so they decided to not work as hard

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Difference between RE and SL=

SL due to reduced motivation/effort by individuals

RE due to more people, less effort/co-ordination

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SL and RE are both still faulty processes as they could...

Affect a team's overall success

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A coach can reduce social loafing by:

Ensure all members understand their role and how it relates to others

Use drills that engage everyone

Ensure individual contributions are noted and identified

Develop both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation by praise

Be aware of occasions where SL may occur

Ask all team members to acknowledge and value the contribution of other member

Develop team cohesion (especially task cohesion, by ensuring the team's objectives are clearly understood and who needs to do what to achieve the goal)