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Flashcards in LEWIS: Sports Injuries Deck (81)
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Injuries can be prevented by:

-using the correct equipment (mouth guards or pads)
-wearing correct clothing (trainers with good friction/support)
-using training methods that allow for rest days
-including warm ups and cool downs in training sessions


Taping is used to prevent

ligament injuries


Bracing is used to provide

extra stability to the joint


Taping must be done expertly if its to provide support without limiting



Bracing must be fully adjustable so that they can limit

movement in joints where ligaments have been stretched as a result of an earlier injury


equipment used to protect themselves from:

impact or penetrative injuries


Examples of protective equipment:

-mouth guards
-knee pads
-eye protectors


footwear must also give sufficient

friction or traction against the ground without gripping excessively that performers suffer from ankle or knee injuries due to rotational forces


Footwear for optimal performance and protection, must be :

-correct size
-suit the foot of the individual


Footwear can be suited by:

-arch of foot
-gait analysis
-understanding of how an individual runs


3 ways an individual:



Neutral means:

heel makes contact with ground and travels in a straight line


Pronated means:

heel hits ground but the foot moves to the side


Supinated means:

heel hits ground first and foot rolls outward


Appropriate clothing can help avoid

sport-related/environmentally related injuries


(Clothing) outdoor adventure activities, it is important to stay warm and dry. The risk of hypothermia is significantly increased if you get wet and cold, especially if there is the associated danger of

wind chill


(Clothing) competing in high temperatures, important to decrease chances of suffering from heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Wearing synthetic, microgfibre type clothing that allows the sweat to 'wick' away from the body quickly will help the performer avoid problems with:

overheating and discomfort


Avoid overheating by:

-ingesting plenty of fluids
-warming up in the shade
-acclimatise body by training in same temp. and humidity


What type of training can reduce/prevent injury:

core strength/stability


Conditioning work that is undertaken must relate specifically to:

-physical demands of the activity
-focus on common injuries


Core strength training involves developing the deep trunk muscles, paraspinal muscles and the pelvic floor muscles which then help stabilise the spine. Before any movement takes place, these muscles contract to give trunk stability which helps:

control movement and transfer energy


Conditioning that improves core strength can help improve performance posture and makes the performer less prone to:

lower back injuries and pain


Core strength training can be undertaken by using

body-weight exercises
balance boards
isometric exercises


Strong, well-conditioned muscles act as important balancing agents for the forces that are generated throughout the body when we engage in physical activity. When muscles are strong, they help to reduce the

repetitive strain that occurs


Overtraining can be caused in 2 ways:

-overstressing the body during training sessions
-not allowing sufficient time for recovery after an intense training session or performance


Characteristics of an overtrained performer:

-Long lasting fatigue
-Worsening of performance under competitive conditions
-tempted to work harder to improve their physical condition


Fatigued and tired muscles provide inadequate support for tendons, ligaments and bones; thereby increasing the risk of

strains, sprains and stress fractures


symptoms of overtraining:

-deep muscle soreness
-persistant nagging injury
-difficulty in working hard enough to raise the HR to the desired training level
-loss of appetite
-recurrent sore throats and flu-like symptoms
-not sleeping properly


To avoid injury caused by overtraining, performers should:

-allow sufficient recovery time
-restore glycogen stores after hard sessions or performances
-not train when ill
-build up training loads gradually after illness
-try and use meditation or relaxation techniques to improve sleep
-ensure that diet is nutritionally balanced


To train children as if they are small adults risks causing damage to developing

joints and musculature