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Flashcards in Confidence Deck (38):
0

Self-confidence is the belief that they can:

Win or perform well

1

Self-efficacy is a self-confidence in a

Specific situation

2

Confidence arouses positive emotions which allow the athlete to:

Remain calm
Be assertive
Concentrate
Focus on important aspects
Realistic goals
Increase effort
Devise strategies

3

4 factors to self-efficacy:

Performance accomplishments
Vicarious experiences
Verbal persuasion
Emotional arousal

4

Performance accomplishments are:

Past experiences
Successful = greater SE
Failures = 'snowball effect'

5

Implications for coaching for PA:

Vital for coaches to make sure the athlete achieves success even if this means changing previously agreed goals that may be seen as too ambitious

6

Vicarious experiences consist of:

What has been observed in others performing a similar skill at a similar standard

7

Implications for coaches for VE:

Make sure that demos and perfect examples that are the same or not far from the individual's ability

8

Verbal persuasion is :

Verbal encouragement - provide SE if the person giving encouragement is of high status to performer
Can take the form of positive self-talk

9

Emotional arousal is:

Perceiving physiological arousal as indicating emotion

10

Strategies to increase self-efficacy:

Ensure PA through manipulation of environment

Effective goal setting

Encourage use of cognitive techniques to gain control of their mind

Routines

Imagery and visualisation

Extrinsic motivation

11

causes of reduced SE:

1)coach's goal setting become too outcome-orientated rather than performer orientated

2)feedback from coach = negative

3)external rewards are restricted to the 'best' performers

12

Social facilitation concerns how people other than the performer can:

Influence the performer's attitude and behaviour

13

Presence of others can be positive =

Social facilitation

14

Presence of others can be negative =

Social inhibition

15

Facilitation leads to:

High arousal to improve performance
Highly skilled extrovert

16

Inhibition leads to:

High arousal which reduces performance
Novices whose skills are not well-learned
Introverts
Skills that require greater concentration

17

Social facilitation and inhibition effects increase in proportion to the extent to which we:

Perceive those who are watching us are evaluating us

18

2 types of audience:

Passive others (audience)
Interactive others (competitors)

19

Co- actors are a passive form of audience involved in the same activity as the performer but not competing directly:

Officials
Other teammates
Helpers

20

Factors affecting performance:

Audience size
Audience proximity
Intentions of audience
Skill level/task difficulty
Personality
Task type

21

Zajonc's theory states that the presence of others creates arousal, which then affects performance negatively of the skill is:

Poorly learnt

22

If a skill is well-learnt, zajonc's model stats that arousal causes a:

Correct response as it is dominant

23

Evaluation apprehension explains that an audience is:

Perceived as evaluation performance - causes anxiety

24

Zajonc found that the presence of others enhances the:

Emission of dominant response

25

Zajonc linked social facilitation to Hull's drive theory- the presence of others:

Results in an increase in drive or arousal level

26

Zajonc if the correct response is dominant, increased drive benefits performance. If it is incorrect then it:

Hinders performance

27

Baron's distraction-conflict theory states that:

If attentional focus is disrupted then they are disrupted from their task

Audience and evaluation apprehension can act as distraction

28

To reduce distraction-conflict:

Performer should practice in distracting circumstances and practice switching attentional focus

29

Home-field advantage:

Crowd may be judged as supportive or hostile (causes anxiety)

Playing at home= familiar, limits anxiety

30

Strategies to cope with evaluation apprehension:

Stress management
Mental rehearsal
Selective attention
Training with an audience present

31

HFA - the more crowd support a team receives the better they perform. Can create:

Functional assertive behaviour in the home team causing them to play more aggressively

32

HFA- audience can have a negative effect on visiting team due to feedback which can invoke:

Anxiety causing them to perform beneath their capabilities

33

For away games somatic and cognitive anxiety levels should be higher and self confidence should be:

Lower

34

HFA: In very important games what effect occurs:

Choke effect

35

Home teams may still lose as:

Stadiums are large and hard to fill: makes the crowd look and sound very spread out and small - lack of support

Crowd relatively far away - less influence on the players

Pressure becomes too high

36

How can the crowd affect HFA:

More supportive crowd of home team the better the team's performance

Bigger the crowd the more likely the HFA

More hostile the crowd is to visiting team the greater the audience's effect on HFA

Crowd's influence may have on officials

37

HFA - distance travelled to an away fixture has an effect

On the outcome of the match