Bacterial and fungal meningitis Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > Bacterial and fungal meningitis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bacterial and fungal meningitis Deck (31):
1

What are the symptoms of meningitis?

Fever,
headache
neckstiffness
photophobia
(rash sometimes)
*Fully conscious

2

What are the symptoms of meningitis?

-altered consciousness
-seizures
-fever
-headache
-neck stiffness
-(rash sometimes

3

What are the symptoms of brain abscesses?

-fever
-headache
-(can have neck stiffness)
-siezures

4

What are the causes of brain abscess?

Bacterial or sometimes parasitic

5

How to micro-organisms invade the brain?

Blood - brain barrier
blood CSF barrier
Peripheral nerves

6

What should the normal glucose blood level be?

2.5-4.0 mmol/l

7

What is the glucose level of a bacterial infection?

Less than 2.0

8

What is the cell count in a bacterial infection vs normal blood?

Normal = 200

9

What type of bacteria is Neisseria Meningitidis?

Gram Negative Diplococci

10

What are the outcomes of Neisseria Meningitidis infection?

-Rapid Septicaemia (bloof poisoning)
-Septicaemia + Purpuric rash
-Septicaemia + Meningitis
-Pyogenic (pus) meningitis + no rash
-conjuctivitis
-focal sepsis

11

What is the treatment of Neisseria Meningitidis?

-Ceftriaxone / Cefotaxime
-Penicillin

*prevent spread in close contacts with Rifampicin / Ciprofloxacin

12

What type of Bacteria is Haemophilus Influenzae?

Gram negative cocco bacilli

13

What is the age group that Haemophilus Influenzae commonly causes Meningitis?

Infants from 2months to 2 years

14

What is the treatment of Haemophilus Influenzae?

-Ceftriaxone, cefotaxime
-Ampicillin

*Protection of close contacts with Rifampicin.
*H.Influenzae Type B conjugate vaccine

15

What type of bacterium is Streptococcus Pneumoniae?

Gram Positive Cocci

16

What is the normal habitat for Streptococcus Pneumoniae?

Respiratory tract

17

What is the treatment for Streptococcus Pneumoniae?

Ceftriaxone, Cefotaxime

18

when should steroids be used to treat meningitis?

If Streptococcus Pneumoniae suspected .

*no evidence of benefit in meningococcal meningitis

19

What are the common causes of Neonatal Meningitis?

-group B Streptococci
-Escherichia Coli
-Listeria Monocytogenes

20

What are the treatments for Neonatal Meningitis?

-Cefotaxime
-Ampicillin and gentamicin

21

What the the complications of meningitis?

-Sepsis
-raised intracranial pressure
-deafness
-siezures
-stroke
-hydrocephalus

22

What are the causes of lymphocytic meningitis?

1) Viral:
-Enterovirus
-Herpes Simplex
-polio

2 )Spirochete (spiraled bacteria) :
-Treponemal
-Borrelia

3) TB

23

What methods are used to detect TB?

-Ziehl Neelsen Stain
- Fluorescent antibody stain

24

What type of organism id cryptococcus?

Cryptococcus is a yeast

25

How is cryptoccus meningitis treated?

Amphotericin
Flucytosine
Fluconazole

26

What age group does Japenese encephalitis virus affect?

children

*Japanese encephalitis virus is an arbovirus.

27

What type of bacteria is Clostridium Tetani?

Clostridium Tetani is a Gram Positive Spore forming bacillus

28

How does clostridium tetani enter the body?

Clostridium tetani usually resides in soil.
If soil enters a wound C.Tetani can infect.

29

What is the toxin produced by Clostridium Tetani and how does it affect the body?

Clostridium Tetani produces the toxin TETANOSPASMIN.
Tetanospasmin spreads via the bloodstream and binds to GANLIOSIDE RECEPTORS and blocks the release of inhibitory interneurones.
-CAUSES CONVULSIVE CONTRACTION OF MUSCLES!!!!

30

What are the side effects of CLlostridium tetani infection?

Tetanus (lockjaw)
-Muscle spasms
-trismus (spasm of jaw muscles)
-Opisthotonus (hyperextension of back)
-respiratory difficulties
-Cardiovascular instability

31

What is the treatment for Clostridium Tetani?

-Antitoxin
-Penicillin or metronidazole
-drugs for spasms
-muscle relaxants
-respiratory support
-

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