Flashcards in Breast Pathology Deck (13)
Describe the anatomy of the breast
-Lobules contain glands which secrete milk
-glands are connected to ducts open onto the surface of the nipple.
(glands are made of epithelial and myoepithelial cells. Epithelial cells synthesise milk, myoepthithelial cells are contractile so help with ejections of milk)
What are the risk factors for breast cancer?
- Oestrogen/progesterone contraceptives.
How does breast disease present?
what is triple assessment of breast abnormalities?
What are Fibroadenomas?
They are common fibroepithelial neoplasms. They present as a lump.
What are Phyllodes Tumours?
Phyllodes Tumours are a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm with overgrowth of stroma.
Describe fibrocystic change that can occur in breast tissue. (what histological changes can occur?)
Fibrocystic change that occurs in breast tissue is usually benign and non-neoplastic.
The following histological changes can occur:
-Adenosis (enlargement of lobules)
-Sclerosing adenosis (lobular proliferation but acini become distorted)
(results in obstruction of ductal lumen)
(papillar process projects into lumen of ducts/cysts)
(dilation of acni and terminal ducts)
(cysts lined with epithelium of apocrine sweat glands)
What causes Peau d' orange?
It is caused by cancer blocking up the lymphatic capillaries leading to oedema.
what breast conditions cause nipple duct discharge?
- Duct ectasia (when the duct gets blocked causing a greenish discharge)
- In situ papillary carcinoma
-Intracystic papillary carcinoma
What is Paget's Disease?
It presents as ulceration and reddening of the nipple.
It is caused by a ductal in situ carcinom which grows into the skin of the nipple.
What is mastitis?
It is an acute inflammatory condition that occurs after delivery. It is caused by Staphylococcus Aureus.
describe breast abscesses and fistulae.
abscesses are a painful collection of pus that collects under the skin.