Anaemia and Thrombocytopenia (haematology pathology) Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > Anaemia and Thrombocytopenia (haematology pathology) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anaemia and Thrombocytopenia (haematology pathology) Deck (24):
1

What are the causes of anaemia?

1) Haematinic deficiencies
2) Secondary to chronic disease
3) Haemolysis
4) alcohol, drugs, toxins
5) Renal impairment (lack of erythropoeitin)
6) Primary haematological / bone marrow disease

2

What are the causes of Macrocytic anaemia?

1) B12, Folate deficiency (e.g. thyroid / liver disease)

-bone marrow damage (alcohol, drugs, marrow disease)

-Haemolysis (caused by reticulocytosis)

3

What are the causes of normocytic anaemia?

-anaemia of a chronic or inflammatory disease

4

What are the causes of microcytic anaemia/?

- Iron deficiency
-Haemoglobin disorders

5

What type of anaemia does iron deficiency and haemoglobin disorders cause?

Microcytic anaemia

6

What type of anaemia does B12/ folate deficiency, marrow damage and haemolysis cause?

Macrocytic anaemia

7

Where is iron absorbed?

duodenum

8

What MCV and MCH are small, pale red cells indicative of?

Low MCV and Low MCH

9

what are the main causes of iron deficiency?

-Blood loss
-Increased demand ie. pregnancy
-reduced intake

10

What is the cause of megaloblastic anaemia/

impaired DNA synthesis

11

What is the MCV of large red cells?

High MCV

12

How do B12 and Folate cause anaemia?

-DNA consists of purine/pyrimidine bases
-folate is required for DNA synthesis
-B12 is essential for folate generation.
-So low folate / B12 leads to impaired DNA synthesis
-so impaired replication

13

What is needed for the absorption of B!2?

Intrinsic factor which is produced by the gastric parietal cells

14

What causes increased usage of folic acid?

1) pregnancy
2) haemolysis
3) inflammatory disorders

15

What are the following features common to?
-Mild Jaundice
-Glossitis
-anorexia
-Megaloblastic anaemia

B12 or Folate deficiency

16

Pernicious Anaemia

a deficiency in the production of red blood cells through a lack of vitamin B12.


17

What causes SACDC? SACDC (subacute combined degeneration of the cord) presents with peripheral neuropathy, numbness, dementia and unsteady walking.

B12 deficiency

18

what are the causes of haemolysis?

Inside cell:
-Haemoglobinopathy (Sickel cell)
-Enzyme defect

Membrane:
-Hereditary Spherocytosis

External:
-antibodies
-drugs
-heart valves
-vasculitis

19

What are the following signs of?
-Raised bilirubin
-High MCV
-Macrocytic anaemia
-low haptoglobins

Presence of haemolysis

20

What is the regulator of iron absorption and release from macrophages?

Hepcidin

21

high ferritin and low serum iron are signs of what type of anaemia?

Anaemia of chronic disease

22

What are the common causes of thrombocytopenia?

-Drugs, alcohol ,toxins
- Liver disease / hypersplenism
-Pregnancy
-Infections

23

What is immune thrombocytopenic purpura?

low platelet count with rash

24

How does immune thrombocytopenic purpura present?

-bruising / bleeding / petechiae
-lowered platelet count

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