Flashcards in Anaemia and Thrombocytopenia (haematology pathology) Deck (24)
What are the causes of anaemia?
1) Haematinic deficiencies
2) Secondary to chronic disease
4) alcohol, drugs, toxins
5) Renal impairment (lack of erythropoeitin)
6) Primary haematological / bone marrow disease
What are the causes of Macrocytic anaemia?
1) B12, Folate deficiency (e.g. thyroid / liver disease)
-bone marrow damage (alcohol, drugs, marrow disease)
-Haemolysis (caused by reticulocytosis)
What are the causes of normocytic anaemia?
-anaemia of a chronic or inflammatory disease
What are the causes of microcytic anaemia/?
- Iron deficiency
What type of anaemia does iron deficiency and haemoglobin disorders cause?
What type of anaemia does B12/ folate deficiency, marrow damage and haemolysis cause?
Where is iron absorbed?
What MCV and MCH are small, pale red cells indicative of?
Low MCV and Low MCH
what are the main causes of iron deficiency?
-Increased demand ie. pregnancy
What is the cause of megaloblastic anaemia/
impaired DNA synthesis
What is the MCV of large red cells?
How do B12 and Folate cause anaemia?
-DNA consists of purine/pyrimidine bases
-folate is required for DNA synthesis
-B12 is essential for folate generation.
-So low folate / B12 leads to impaired DNA synthesis
-so impaired replication
What is needed for the absorption of B!2?
Intrinsic factor which is produced by the gastric parietal cells
What causes increased usage of folic acid?
3) inflammatory disorders
What are the following features common to?
B12 or Folate deficiency
a deficiency in the production of red blood cells through a lack of vitamin B12.
What causes SACDC? SACDC (subacute combined degeneration of the cord) presents with peripheral neuropathy, numbness, dementia and unsteady walking.
what are the causes of haemolysis?
-Haemoglobinopathy (Sickel cell)
What are the following signs of?
Presence of haemolysis
What is the regulator of iron absorption and release from macrophages?
high ferritin and low serum iron are signs of what type of anaemia?
Anaemia of chronic disease
What are the common causes of thrombocytopenia?
-Drugs, alcohol ,toxins
- Liver disease / hypersplenism
What is immune thrombocytopenic purpura?
low platelet count with rash