Flashcards in Diseases of Musculoskeletal system 2 Deck (30):
What is the embryological origin of bone?
Ectoderm - skin
Mesoderm - soft tissue (bone, muscle, adipose ...)
Endoderm - internal organs
Fat tissue benign tumour
Fibrous tissue - benign tumour
smooth muscle - benign tumour
blood vessel - benign tumour
lymphatics - benign tumour
peripheral nerve -benign tumour
What is a carcinoma?>
tumour from epithelial tissue
What is a sarcoma
malignant soft tissue tumour
How do sarcomas metastasize?
sarcomas spread via the blood stream to liver, lung and brain. Sarcomas do not go to lymph nodes
*carcinomas metastasise via the lymphatics
What is gardner syndrome?
Gardner syndrome is a form of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). it is characterized by polyps in the colon and tumours outside the colon such as fibromas (benign tumours of connective tissue)
What is turner syndrome?
turner syndrome = 45, X
Female is missing or has incomplete X chromosome resulting in underdeveloped ovaries and reduced height.
Name some benign bone tumours
Osteomas (bone grows on bone)
Name a benign cartilage tumour
Name a malignant bone tumour
What is a giant cell tumour?
rare, aggressive non-cancerous (benign) tumor. It generally occurs in adults between the ages of 20 and 40 years. Many "giant" cells are seen caused by the fusion of many cells into one.
What is Ewing's Sarcoma?
malignant small, round, blue cell tumor. It is a rare disease in which cancer cells are found in the bone or in soft tissue.
where do metatastic bone tumours tend to originate from?
breas, lung , prostate ect.
What is Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE)
SLE is a systemic chronic autoimmune disease that can affect many different areas including:
-skin (butterfly rash)
-renal (nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis)
What sex does SLE affect the most
What is systemic sclerosis?
autoimmune disease of the connective tissue. It is characterized by thickening of the skin caused by accumulation of collagen, and by injuries to the smallest arteries
-has a poor prognosis
what condition is associated with giant cell arteritis and also cause stiffness, weakness and aches in the neck muscles/
What is myopathy?
Muscle disease that is UNRELATED to any disorder of innervation or neuromuscular function
What is myositis?
muscle fibres and overlying skin are inflamed resulting in muscle weakness
what is muscular dystrophy?
-progressively sever muscle weakness and wasting
what is malignant hyperthmia?
it is an inherited condition where the body temp rises quickly and muscles contract in response to general anaesthesia`
What is Rhabdomyolysis?
Destruction of skeletal muscle causes the release of muscle fibre content into the blood stream.
*when filtered through the kidney causes urine to turn brown
What causes rhabdomyolysis?
2) Extreme temp
3) Severe exertion e.g. marathon
4) long surgery
what is an important complication of rhabdomyolysis?
Acute Renal failure