Flashcards in Investigation of the liver Deck (15):
What is the function of the liver?
Excretion / detox
-Glycogen storage / synthesis
-synthesis and metabolism
-Lipoprotein and cholesterol synthesis
-fatty acid metabolism
-BILE ACID SYNTHESIS / METAB
4) Excretion/ detoxification:
-BILIRUBIN (unconjugated to conjugated)
-Vit A, D, E and B12 storage and metabolism
What are the common tests of liver function?
-ALT (alanine aminotransferase)
-GGT (gamma glutamyl transferase)
Prothrombin time is used as a measure of .....
Vitamin K metabolism
What markers are used for hepatocyte damage?
ALT and AST are found in cells and only released by cellular damage, so increased ALT (alanine) and aspartate (AST) indicate hepatocyte damage
Which is a more specific marker for the liver AST or ALT>
ALT is more specific than AST becuase AST is also found in muscle and RBCs.
How is biliary tract damage identified?
-Impaired excretory function (ie increased conjugated bilirubin)
-increased synthesis of enzymes by cells that line the bile canaliculi.
- elevated ALP (alkaline phosphatase)
-elevated gamma glutamyltransferase
What is the cause of increased alkaline phospatase?
isolated ALP enzymes can be secreted from....?
Liver and bone
why is gamma glutamyltransferase elevated in biliary tract damage?
can also be raised in :
what bilirubin level causes jaundice?
Gilberts and Crigler- Najjar are inherited diseases. what do they cause?
Causes jaundice by
decreasing activity of UDP glucuronyl transferase (the enzyme that conjugated bilirubin.
What is elevated AST / ALT and normal ALP indicative of in jaundice?
Hepatitis is the cause of jaundice.
What is normal AST/ALT and elevated ALP indicative of in jaundice
Obstruction is cause of jaundice
Dark urine and pale stools is a sign of?
Post hepatic obstruction causing jaundice