Flashcards in Bacterial Metabolism and Genetics Deck (54)
Nutrients required by bacteria
CHONPS and trace metal salts
What versions of C and N are most important?
Describe the shape of a bacterial growth curve based on temperature.
The curve leans with the highest point/optimum at higher temperatures
What is the significance of the bacterial growth curve?
Increase in temperature by as little as 2 degrees causes a large drop in population -- FEVER
Three types of bacteria based on pH? Who is most common in the stomach? The body?
Acidophile, Neutralophile, Alkalophile
Circumstances in which an aerobe will grow?
Needs an electron acceptor -- O,N,S
Circumstances in which an anaerobe will grow?
Grows in No O2
O2 forms radicals
Circumstances in which facultative anaerobes grow?
Grows in O2, less well without O2
Have TCA and can ferm.
Circumstances in which aerotolerant will grow?
Will grow with or without O2
Doesn't use O2 anyway
Circumstances in which microaerophile will grow?
Grows in O2 below 0.2 ATM
Needs O2, but too much makes radicals
Oxygen sensitivity of more tissue?
Oxygen sensitivity of lungs?
Oxygen sensitivity of tonsils/back of throat?
Four phases of bacterial growth cycle?
Lag, Exponential, Stationary, Decline
What stage are bacteria typically in the lab? In the body?
What occurs during the lag phase?
Adaption to new nutrients
New enzyme synthesis/up-regulation
What occurs in the exponential phase?
Growth and binary division
What occurs in the stationary phase?
Crowding, Starvation or Toxic Conditions
Stress Genes Upregulated
What occurs in the decline phase?
Cells begin to lyse.
What occurs in bacterial latency?
No division, allows for hiding from immune response
How do persister cells come about?
Turn off metabolism
Turn on dormancy pathways
Role of persister cells in treatment?
Treating against persister cells leads to more rapid cure
Describe the bacterial chromosome.
Stable w/out telomeres
Associated with proteins (structural and regulatory)
What are merodiploids?
Genes in multicopy in the bacterial chromosome
Describe a plasmid?
Circular, smaller than chromosome
Can exist in hundreds of copies per cell
What controls plasmid replication?
In a broad sense, how does bacterial transcriptional regulation occur?
Negative Regulation -- Protein Repressors
Positive Regulation -- Protein Activators
Where do repressors bind?
Between promoter and gene
Where do activators bind?
Upstream of promoters