Flashcards in (SOME) Zoonoses Deck (105)
Describe the physical structure of Bacillus.
Large, Fat, Square Ends
Chains, Palisades, Clumps
Bacillus response to adversity?
Oxygen metabolism of Bacillus.
Some species have butanediol or lactate ferm pathways.
Where can Bacillus be found primarily?
Soil and on Leaf Surfaces
Two types of Bacillus we covered?
Bacillus cereus is typically seen in what context?
Describe the physical appearance of Bacillus cereus spores.
Describe the physical appearance of Bacillus cereus colonies on agar plates.
Large, flat, rough
What two varieties of Bacillus cereus are seen clinically?
Describe the clinical presentation of emetic variety Bacillus cereus.
Very Acute Onset (1-6 hrs)
Recovery in 12 hours
Nausea, Vomiting, Cramps
Describe the clinical presentation of the diarrheal variety of Bacillus cereus.
Slow onset (8-16 hrs)
Profuse Diarrhea, Cramps
How do people get Bacillus cereus?
Cooked rice and pasta that has been cooled too slowly?
Why the fuck does it matter how slowly my rice cools?
Cooling slowly allows spores to germinate and produce the toxin
How many toxins are associated with Bacillus cereus?
4 (1 emetic toxin and three enterotoxins)
What does the emetic toxin of Bacillus cereus do?
What are the three enterotoxins associated with Bacillus cereus?
Cytotoxin (Activates Ad cyclase)
Unique physical characteristics of Bacillus anthracis?
"Cut glass" colonies on blood agar
Clinical presentation of Bacillus anthracis?
Papule (12-36 hrs) becomes a large necrotic eschar
Disseminates and becomes systemic
May infect any organ
What is an eschar?
a dry, dark scab or falling away of dead skin
Three most common causes of diarrhea (not necessarily in order)
How is Bacillus anthracis typically contracted?
- Animals ingest/carry spores from soil
- Human handles infected animal materials
- Spore contacts mucous membranes or enter through abrasions
- Germinate in Macrophages after engulfment
How long are Bacillus anthracis spores viable?
more than 50 years
Four ways (even though they may kind of overlap..) that Bacillus anthracis can get into the body
Contact Mucus Membrane
Why should we give a shit about Bacillus anthracis if it comes up less than once a year in the whole world?
Possibly comes up in bioweaponization
What do spores do upon entering the host?
Germinate in the phagolysosome (upon O2 radical exposure)
Can Bacillus anthracis spores be found in blood smears?
Describe the Bacillus anthracis toxin
Tripartite AB-type (A2B) toxin
What are the three components of Bacillus anthracis toxin?
Binding (Protective Antigen)
What does Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor do?
It is a MAP Kinase Protease responsible for necrosis