Pathogens with Respiratory Transmission Flashcards Preview

Micro Exam #2 > Pathogens with Respiratory Transmission > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathogens with Respiratory Transmission Deck (73)
Loading flashcards...
1

Three primary bacteria discussed in this packet

Mycobacterium
Mycoplasma
Corynebacterium

2

Staining used for mycobacterium?

Acid-Fast

3

Describe the growth of mycobacteria?

Very Slow (18hours)
Growth from one pole

4

Significance of mycobacteria growth time?

Culturing is too slow for diagnosis

5

mycobacterial structure associated with virulence?

Serpentine Cord Formation

6

Describe the mycobacterial cell wall

Made with mycolic acids (very hydrophobic
Waxy part of outer layer

7

Significance of mycolic acids in mycobacterium? (2)

Acid-Fastness
Prevents lysozyme or complement attack

8

What is Freund's Adjuvant?

The waxy part of the outer layer of mycobacteriua
Antigenic

9

What is LAM? Why do we care?

Lipoarabinomannan
Stimulates cytokine production by mammalian host

10

TB promotes what other disease?

HIV

11

Symptoms of mycobacterium tuberculosis?

Fatigue, Fever, Night Sweats, Weight Loss, Hemoptysis

12

Primary presentation of mycobacterium tuberculosis?

Exudative lesion (edema, inflammation)
Usually Unnoticed

13

Three potential responses to exudative lesions?

Healing
Necrotizes lung
Productive Lesion

14

A productive lesion will cause a _____ to occur. This can cause these two responses.

Granuloma
Encasing or Spreading (via lymph, bronchi, or blood)

15

Encases granulomas run the risk of

Reactivation
Leads to multiple granulomas, fibrination of lung

16

Mycobacterium tuberculosis spread in the blood can lead to ...

Miliary TB

17

What is caseum?

Necrotic tissue damaged by inflammatory response and lack of vascularization

18

Why are caseum especially bad in mycobacterial infection?

The hollowed areas they leave behind may allow encapsulated TB to escape

19

Prevalence of TB?

2B people in the world infected (30%)

20

TB at risk populations in the US? (5)

Minorities and Immigrants
Co-Existing Infection (esp. HIV)
Homeless
Very Young or Old
Travelers in High Risk Areas

21

How is TB spread?

Person-to-Person via respiratory droplets

22

What does TB do when in the body?

Attach to alveolar macrophages and invade
Prevent Phagolysosome fusion
Cytotoxicity from cord factor
Cytokine-mediated inflammation

23

T or F. TB always presents with primary symptoms of the lungs.

False. Rarely primary extrapulmonary symptoms will occur.

24

Two sites where long term TB retention may occur.

Granulomas and Bone Marrow.

25

Two tests used to detect TB?

Mantoux (PPD) Test
QuantiFERON-Gold assay (IGRA)

26

How does a Mantoux (PPD) Test work?

Intradermal Protein Injection
Sensitivity within 72 hours indicates that Tmem cells were present

27

How does a QuantiFERON-Gold assay work?

Tests for releave of IFN-g from peripheral lymphocytes when exposed to TB antigen

28

Best method of diagnosing TB?

PCR

29

Two ineffective means of diagnosing TB?

Culture (too slow)
Acid-fast sputum stain (requires massive inf. to detect)

30

What does a IGRA+ or PPD+ patient with no symptoms and normal X ray indicate? What should you do?

Latent TB
Latent TB MUST be treated