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Flashcards in Baldwin Government 1924-9 Deck (32)
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1

What, industrially were the causes of the 1926 general strike?

Positively impacted by 1923 Ruhr crisis, and U.S and Polish strikes, negatively impacted by Dawes plan and export of free coal to France and Italy

2

What, politically, caused the general strike?

A.J. Cook and Sir Herbert Samuel unwilling to compromise on lower wages and higher hours, the samuel commission was ignored by both parties, Baldwin refused to cave in

3

Why, economically, did the strike not make too much sense?

Although wages decreased, real wages hadn't changed, due to the gold standard introduced by Churchill, however miners wouldn't take wider economic picture into case

4

Why didnt the Strike work?

Instructions to banks to not give money to unions, army of volunteers helping, army escorting food, battleships watched docks

5

What happened in June 1925?

Increased hours, cuts of 13-48%

6

What did the Macmillan court of inquiry find, and what was done?

Wages should take precedence over profits, owners maintained traditional rates of profit, wages cut

7

What did King George V have to say about the strike?

"Try living on their wages before you judge them"

8

What else caused problems for the coal industry?

It was more expensive than foreign competitors

9

What did the samuel report call for?

Mining royalties nationalised, 10% cut in wages, days not lengthened, but only started when got to coal face

10

How many people went on strike?

3.5 million

11

Who was arrested during the strike?

Communist MP for battersea for making a seditious speech

12

Where did the police raid during the general strike?

Head office of the communist party

13

While Said the strike was illegal and in time, were they correct?

Sir John Simon, no he wasn't

14

Who was prevented from joining the strike?

Sailors and firemen, stopped by high court of justice

15

Where was Sir Herbert Samuel during most of the strike?

On holiday in Italy

16

What exchange happened between miners and the police in Glasgow?

Charged with batons as stopping volunteers driving trams, responded with missiles

17

What did police do in Edinburgh during the strike?

Baton charge on foot and cavalry

18

What happened as a result of the strike?

Sympathetic strikes made illegal, trade unions paying political levy to labour party had to write out that they were doing it, civil servants trade union not allowed to join TUC

19

Why did Baldwin avoid fissiparous issues during his tenure?

He was focused on rebuild Conservative party, not the nation

20

Who was in the cabinet?

Austen Chamberlain - foreign secretary, Lord Curzon - lord president of council (replaced by Balfour upon his death on 1925), Lord Birkenhead- secretary for India, Neville Chamberlain minister of health

21

Who did Baldwin appoint as chancellor and why?

Churchill, as he supported free trade, so govt wasn't going to tackle issue of protectionism, and to stop Churchill from drifting back to liberals

22

How was it received when Churchill moved to gold standard?

Churchill no experience in finance, when asvisors spoke he said they "might as well be speaking in Persian", favoured by many, criticised by Keynes, said overvalued by 10% too much and to stay on it would have to sell exports so low may make loss, or make products cheaper by cutting wages - ignored him as he was brilliant but too attached to liberals

23

How many people were rejected from the army when they signed up in the late 20's?

Over half

24

Why was tackling on unemployment ineffective?

Remained same, went slightly up/down, lower wages to maintain gold standard

25

What did Chamberlain do as health minister?

Passed 22 of his sketched out programme of 25 bills, mainly focus on decentralisation for education, public health, water supply etc. Lots of reforms, didnt actually enact much

26

What did setting up the central electricity board in 1926 do?

Set up national grid

27

What did the 1928 franchise act do?

Gave women same voting age as men, increased electorate from 22m to 29m

28

What did Chamberlain do as foreign secretary?

1925 Locarno treaty, 1928 Kellog-Briand pact, got rid of russian relations set up by MacDonald, rejected proposals of disarming put forward by MacDonald and Henderson at LON

29

How did A.J.P. Taylor describe Neville Chamberlain?

"The most effective social reformer of the interwar years"

30

What did the 1925 ratings and valuations act mostly wipe out?

Poor law boards