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Flashcards in Attlee Government 1945-51 Deck (50)
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1

What conservative problems caused labour getting elected in 1945?

Baldwin's failure to deal with unemployment and economy following the depression, incoherent foreign policy of 30's and failure of inter war govts to provide "land fit for heroes"

2

What advantages did labour have which caused them to win the 1945 election?

People felt labour better to reconstruction after war, experienced cabinet, imbalance electorally favoured labour, failures beforehand due to minority govt and mainly MacDonald govt, MacDonald no longer around

3

What did Harold Macmillan say about the 1945 election?

"It was not Churchill who lost the 1945 election, it was the ghost of Neville Chamberlain"

4

What happened to income tax and foreign investment?

Raised to 50%, sold £1,000 million in foreign investment

5

What happened in regards to finance and trade with the U.S?

U.S ended lend-lease upon Japan's surrender, Keynes got loan of $3 3/4 billion at 2% interest in Nov 1945, didn't have to start pay until 1951, pay over 50 years, Dalton increased exports to U.S, decreased imports, aim to make £ freely convertible into $ by July 1947

6

What was production like in Feb 1947?

Fell by 50%, electricity reduced to 5hrs a day

7

How did unemployment change from Jan - Feb 1947?

From 400k to 2.5 Million

8

How much grain was destroyed due to the winter?

116,000 acres

9

What exacerbated the problems with the winter?

Emanuel Shinwell - minister for power and fuel - didnt act quick enough as put too much faith in nationalism

10

What did the 1947 budget include?

More exports, less imports, taxation increased, govt spending cut, limits on imports = worse rationing

11

What happened to Britains reserves from March - September 1949?

Fell by 30%

12

What did the 1949 financial crisis cause?

Pound devalued by 30%, from $4.03 to $2.80, remained like this until 1967

13

How did the defence budget change from 1951-54? And what happened as a consequence?

Rose to £4,700 million, which was 14% of total income so cuts to welfare, Anuerin Bevan resigns

14

What did Atlee do in Regards to the empire?

Gave problem of Palestine to UN, took troops and removed financial aid from Greece, out of India as financial liability, Louis Monbatton was new Viceroy of India

15

What happened as a result of Labours Empirical policies?

Created power Vacuums, Atlee did those things against advice of Bevin and Chiefs of staff

16

What happened in the 1947 convertibility crisis?

Shares in £ dropped by 10%, decided to end convertibility and reinstitute exchange controls, Ministers on holiday - humiliation, Dalton and Cripps told Atlee he wanted Bevin to be PM

17

How much of heat and energy was from coal mines in 1947?

90%

18

How much money did the UK get from the 1948 Marshall aid?

1/4 of total money put into europe ($3 billion), over 4 years

19

What did the Pentagon want for Britain's defence budget?

£6 billion by 1953, in 1950 was £2.3 billion

20

What lead to Bevan's resignation?

Doubling of defence budget to £4.6 billion, suggested capping the NHS

21

Who replaced Cripps as Chancellor in 1950?

Hugh Gaitskell

22

Who resigned over the Korea scandal?

Bevin, Morrison replaced him as foreign minister

23

How had the budget changed from 1950-1?

+£300m to -£400m

24

How much was the pound devalued by in 1949?

By 30%

25

What did Ellen Wilkinson achieve as Education minister?

35k teachers in teaching, roughly 1,000 new primary schools in 40's school leaving age increased to 15 in 1947, uni students went from 50k to 77k (1939-49)

26

How did Wilkinson fail?

Less than 50 new comprehensive schools by 1950, still divide between classes, less integration @ uni

27

As a result of the NHS, what happened to illnesses?

Illnesses involving malnutrition became rare; TB Diphtheria and pneumonia fatalities fell, death by infection reduced due to free prescriptions

28

What else did Bevan achieve through the NHS or otherwise?

Infant mortality fell by 50% by mid 50's, social divisions for who could and couldn't see a doctor reduced

29

What were the failures of the govt in regard to health?

Prescriptions went from £140m a year to £358 by 1950, introduction of prescription charges lead to resignation of ministers (1951)

30

How did labour fail in social security?

Targeted welfare would've been more effective than improved general welfare, employers contribution deterrent to hire more workers, excessive welfare spending hindered economic growth