Basic Respiratory Physiology Flashcards Preview

Respiratory Block > Basic Respiratory Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basic Respiratory Physiology Deck (55):
1

What are the 4 main functions of the respiratory system?

Gas Exchange
Acid base balance
Protection from infection
Communication via speech

2

What is the waste product of oxygen being used to produce energy?

Carbon dioxide

3

What type of blood does the pulmonary artery transport?

Deoxygenated

4

Where is oxygen delivered to in the pulmonary circulation?

The heart

5

What are the two main points of gas exchange within the respiratory system?

The lungs
Systemic capillaries

6

What is the average volume of oxygen exchanged in the lungs per minute?

250 ml

7

In which part of the respiratory system is the air shared with the digestive system?

The pharynx

8

What is the name given to the small flap of tissue folding over the trachea to prevent food from entering the trachea?

Epiglottis

9

Which parts make up the upper respiratory tract?

Pharynx
Nasal cavity
Vocal cords
Tongue
Larynx
Oesophagus

10

Which parts make up the lower respiratory tract?

Lungs
Trachea
Bronchi
Diaphragm

11

Which lung has 3 lobes?

The right lung

12

What are the names of the 3 lobes in the right lung?

Superior
Middle
Inferior

13

Where is the point of gas exhange in the airways?

Alveoli

14

Which type of alveolar cells permit gas exchange?

Type 1 cells

15

Which fluid produced by Type 2 alveolar cells reduces surface tension on the alveolar surface membrane

Surfactant

16

What does surfactant reduce the tendency for alveoli to do?

Collapse

17

Is surfactant more effective in smaller or larger alveoli?

Smaller alveoli

18

At roughly what time gestation period does surfactant production start?

25 weeks

19

What is the name given to the change in volume relative to change in pressure?

Compliance

20

What does compliance represent?

The stretchability of the lungs

21

Emphysema is the loss of what?

Elastic tissue

22

Where is alveolar ventilation highest?

The base of the lung

23

Give 2 examples of obstructive lung disorders

Chronic Bronchitis
Emphysema

24

Which lung volume cannot be measured directly by spirometry?

Residual volume

25

What does FEV1 stand for?

Forced expiratory volume in 1 second

26

Which type of circulation sends oxygenated blood to the airway's smooth muscle?

Bronchial

27

Which type of circulation carries the entire cardiac output from the right ventricle?

Pulmonary

28

Where does the pulmonary circulation return oxygenated blood to?

Left Atrium

29

Is vascular resistance higher at the base or the apex of the lung?

The apex

30

Where in the lung is blood flow highest?

The base of the lung

31

What is the name given to when ventilation is greater than blood flow?

Alveolar dead space

32

What does the term anatomical dead space refer to?

Air in the conducting zone of the respiratory tract unable to participate in gas exchange

33

The partial pressure only refers to what?

Oxygen dissolved in solution

34

Where does most of the arterial oxygen content come from?

The haemoglobin in the RBCs

35

How many oxygen molecules can haemoglobin co-operatively bind?

4

36

What is the major determinant of teh degree to which haemoglobin is saturated with oxygen?

Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood

37

Why can a fetus extract oxygen from the mother's blood>

Due to foetal haemoglobin having a higher affinity for oxygen than HbA

38

Why, in anaemic patients would arterial blood be normal?

Because ventilation is not affected, it is normal also

39

If pH decreases, what will happen to the haemoglobin saturation?

It will also decrease

40

DPG is produced as a result of what?

Red cell metabolism

41

Why is carbon monoxide so dangerous?

It has a greater affinity than oxygen for haemoglobin

42

In hypoventilation, what happens to the oxygen levels?

They decrease

43

What is the name given to when more carbon dioxide is given off by the body?

Hyperventilation

44

For the body to be able to breath, it requires a cycle of activation of what nerves?

Phrenic and Intercostal nerves

45

Which nerves innervates the diaphragm?

The phrenic nerve

46

What is the most important factor in changing the breathing rhythm?

The chemical composition of the blood

47

What are the names of the 2 types of chemoreceptor?

Central and peripheral

48

What is the central chemoreceptor controlled by?

The medulla

49

Which chemoreceptor is responsible for the primary ventilatory drive?

The central chemoreceptor

50

If arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide decreases, what can also decrease?

Ventilation rate

51

What are peripheral chemoreceptors controlled by?

Carotid and aortic bodies

52

The peripheral chemoreceptors stimulate ventilation following what?

A large fall in arterial partial pressure of oxygen

53

True or False? any voluntary breathing pattern can be overriden by the cortex if need be

True

54

During swallowing, respiration is inhibited to avoid what?

Aspiration of food or fluids into the airways

55

What is the name given to the total air movement in and out of lungs?

Pulmonary ventilation