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Flashcards in Tuberculosis Deck (24):
1

Of 1.3 million TB deaths worldwide annually, how many of these individuals are also HIV+?

300,000

2

Where are most of the UK's cases of TB found?

London

3

What is the name of the responsible organism of TB?

Mycobacteria

4

What are the two types of mycobacteria that cause TB?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium bovis

5

What is the thick cell wall of the mycobacteria made of?

Lipids
Peptidoglycans
Arabinomannans

6

Why is it unlikely to catch TB from outdoor bacteria?

As the outdoor mycobacteria is eliminated by UV radiation and infinite dilution

7

How is mycobacterium bovis transmitted?

Consumption of infected cows' milk

8

How is the transmission of M. bovis being solved?

Pasteurisation

9

What types of macrophages are the only ones that can cause destruction of mycobacteria?

Activated macrophages

10

What type of cells can activates macrophages?

T-helper 1 cells

11

What does the accumulation of macrophages, epitheloid and Langhan's cells lead to?

Granulomas

12

How does mycobacteria spread?

Via lymphatics

13

What is a primary complex of TB?

Initial lesion and a local lymph node

14

What are the 3 outcomes of primary infection of TB?

Progression of the disease
Contained latently
Cleared or cured

15

An enlarged hilar lymph compressing the bronchi can lead to what?

A lobar collapse

16

What are the 2 main ways in which post primary disease occurs?

Reactivation of the mycobacterium from latent primary infection
New re-infection from different source

17

What things under a past medical history can give greater chance of a post primary pulmonary TB?

Diabetes
Immunosuppressive diseases
Previous TB

18

What signs are there for more advanced post primary TB?

Crackles
Bronchial breathing

19

If a sputum test comes back negative for TB, what should be done next?

A CT scan of the thorax

20

Why are the surgical techniques to remove TB becoming more prevalent?

Due to increased resistance of TB

21

What is essential in modern treatment of TB?

Multiple drug therapy

22

How long should therapy of drugs be done for?

6 months

23

What are the names of the 4 drugs that are taken for 2 months?

Rifampicin
Isoniazid
Ethambutol
Pyrazinamide

24

What is the side effect of ethambutol?

Optic neuropathy