I have a horse.
to have - habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus. Note that this is a second conjugation verb: the second principle part ends in -ēre.
to wish, want
to wish, want - volō, velle, voluī, --- (irregular).
I want a horse.
I wish, want - volō (irregular).
You (singular) want a cart.
you (sg.) wish, want - vīs (irregular).
He wants to be good.
Esse bonus vult.
he/she/it wishes, wants - vult (irregular). Remember that "to be ___" is written as "esse ___."
We want a farmer.
we wish, want - volumus (irregular).
You (plural) want an island.
you (pl.) wish, want - vultis (irregular).
They want a queen.
they wish, want - volunt (irregular).
He has many horses.
Multōs equōs habet.
much, many - multus, -a, -um.
The cart moves.
to move - moveō, movēre, mōvī, mōtus. Pay attention to the endings of the principle parts in the second conjugation -- sometimes they won't be exactly what you might expect.
The normal second conjugation principle part endings are:
-(e)ō, -ēre, -uī, -(i)tus
How do you form the future tense for first and second conjugation verbs?
Drop -re from the second principle part
Add the future tense ending
e.g. I will carry:
portāre > portā- > portābō
I will go to the queen.
Remember that ībō is the first person singular future tense of īre.
to be unwilling
to be unwilling, to not want - nōlō, nōlle, nōluī, --- (irregular). Note that nōlle is a conjunction of nōn (not) and velle (to want), literally meaning "not to want."
Remember that the "---" means that nōlle does not have a normal principle part.
I don't want to swim.
I don't want - nōlō (irregular).
You (singular) don't want to fight the horse.
Equum pugnāre nōn vīs.
you (sg.) don't want - nōn vīs (irregular).
She doesn't want a sword.
Gladium nōn vult.
he/she/it doesn't want - nōn vult (irregular).
We don't want to fight.
we don't want - nōlumus (irregular).
You (plural) don't want to praise the farmer.
Agricolam laudāre nōn vultis.
you (pl.) don't want - nōn vultis (irregular).
They don't want to go.
they don't want - nōlunt (irregular).
The queen sees a farmer.
Rēgīna agricolam videt.
to see - videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus. Note that a "video" recording is something that you can literally "see."
Historical note: This verb is one of the three parts of Julius Caesar's famous quote, "Vēnī, vīdī, vīcī," which means "I came, I saw, I conquered."
How do you form the perfect tense for all verbs?
Drop -ī from the third principle part
Add perfect tense endings
(Remember, the third principle part is the first person singular perfect.)
e.g. You have carried:
portāvī > portāv- > portāvistī
The woman shouted to the farmer.
Fēmina agricolae exclāmāvit.
I want to teach.
to teach - doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus.
Historical note: the Latin word doctor means "teacher." Originally, people who received a "doctorate" degree were considered well-enough educated to themselves teach.
to prefer - mālō, mālle, māluī, --- (irregular).
I prefer to swim.
I prefer - mālō (irregular).
You (singular) prefer a horse.
you (sg.) prefer - māvīs (irregular).
He prefers to fight.
he/she/it prefers - māvult (irregular).
We prefer the forest.
we prefer - mālumus (irregular).
You (plural) prefer horses.
you (pl.) prefer - māvultis (irregular).
The women prefer the queen.
Fēminae rēgīnam mālunt.
they prefer - mālunt (irregular).
I prefer my horse to your horse.
I prefer my horse to yours.
Meum equum tuī (equī) mālō.
your, yours - tuus, -a, -um.
He is a good poet.
Poeta bonus est.
poet - poeta, -ae (masculine). Note that this is another first declension masculine noun, like agricola.
They want a goat.
goat - caper, caprī (masculine).
Sailors love the wind.
Nautae ventum amant.
wind - ventus, -ī (masculine).
She is the farmer's neighbor.
Fīnitima agricolae est.
neighbor - fīnitimus, -ī (masculine).
neighbor - fīnitima, -ae (feminine).
He likes battle.
battle - proelium, -iī (neuter).
The woman's opinion of the farmer is not good.
Fēminae sententia agricolae nōn bona est.
feeling, opinion - sententia, -ae (feminine). Note that this sentence has two Genitives.
In cases like this, the Genitive case stacks:
"[ the opinion of the farmer of the woman ] is bad" (the woman "posesses" the opinion of the farmer, and how that opinion "is bad").
It's a strange land.
Terra nova est.
land - terra, -ae (feminine).
The horse doesn't like the farmer's whip.
Equus flagellum agricolae nōn amat.
whip - flagellum, -ī (neuter). Note that this word is used in modern biology to indicate a whip-like "tail" that some bacteria posess.
You want a house.
house - casa, -ae (feminine).
Who is it?
who, what - quis (masculine and feminine), quid (neuter).
What do you (plural) want?
What time is it?
Quid hora est?
hour, time - hora, -ae (feminine). Note that in Latin, you are not asking "What is the time?" but rather "What hour is it?"
The Romans told time by dividing daylight into twelve horae, and the night into four watches (vigiliae), each 3 horae long.
In winter, a daylight hora would be about 45 minutes; in summer, it was about 75 minutes.
She cares for the farmer.
(Lit. She has care/concern for the farmer).
Curam agricolae habet.
care, concern - cura, -ae (feminine).
The queen is famous.
Rēgīna clāra est.
famous - clārus, -a, -um.
Today, I saw the queen.
Hodiē, rēgīnam vīsī.
today - hodiē.
The ruins of Rome are famous.
Ruīnae Rōmae clārae sunt.
ruin, downfall - ruīna, -ae (feminine).
ruins - ruīnae, -ārum (feminine). Note that in plural, this word means "ruins," such as an ancient city.
He stands (at) guard.
to stand - stō, stāre, stetī, stātus.
Rome has many famous statues.
Rōma multās statuās clārās habet.
statue - statua, -ae (feminine). Note that this word is derived from stāre, "to stand." Statues are things that "stand" in one place forever.
I don't like you, (but) nevertheless I will go to your house today.
Tē nōn amō, tamen ad casam tuam hodiē ībō.
nevertheless - tamen.