The farmer is in the forest.
Agricola in silvā.
in, on - in. Note that silvā is in the Ablative case. This construction is called the Ablative of Place Where -- it is used to describe where an action takes place or where a thing is. Think: "Where is the farmer? He is in the forest."
The Ablative of Place Where takes the preposition in.
I wanted to see a horse in the field.
Vidēre equum in ager voluī.
field - ager, agrī (masculine). Note that this noun ends in -er in the Nominative. This is another kind of second declension noun. Be careful with the Genitive case of -er nouns: sometimes, the -e- is dropped, like with ager.
A man and a goat are in the field.
Vir caperque in agrō sunt.
man - vir, virī (masculine). To remember this word, think about a modern English derivative: virile (meaning "manly").
What is the Ablative of Place from Which, and what prepositions can you use to form it?
The Ablative of Place from Which is used to show where something is coming from.
ab / ā
ex / ē
A man walks from the field.
Vir dē agrō ambulat.
from, down from - dē.
Sailors fight away from the land.
Nautae pugnant ā terrā.
from, away from - ā, ab.
What are the third declension masculine and feminine noun endings?
The queen loves the king.
Rēgīna rēgem amat.
king - rēx, rēgis (masculine). Note that this is a third declension noun. The third declension is by far the largest of the five, and also has the most variable forms. Most nouns in the third declension do follow one of numerous patterns for their endings, however. This one follows the pattern -x, -gis.
The king's courage is great.
Virtūs rēgis magna est.
courage - virtūs, virtūtis (feminine).
Be careful, this word can be tricky: It is derived from vir, "man," but the word itself is feminine (note that magna agrees with it because it ends in -a). Also remember that there is a macron on the u, so it is not a second declension noun.
What are the third declension neuter noun endings?
His head is big.
Caput suum magnum est.
head - caput, capitis (neuter). Note that this is a third declension noun that follows the pattern -ut, -itis, which is usually neuter.
How do you form the Accusative of Place to Which?
ad + Accusative form of destination
The woman walked (up) to the queen.
Fēmina ad rēgīnam ambulat.
to walk - ambulō, ambulāre, ambulāvī, ambulātus. Note that because the queen is not the indirect object of ambulat, but rather the destination, the Accusative of Place to Which is used.
The farmer goes to the field.
Agricola ad agrum it.
The queen readies weapons for the farmers.
Rēgīna agricolīs arma parat.
weapons - arma, armōrum (neuter). Note that "weapons" is always plural.
Also note that the gender of this word is "neuter." This means that the word is not inherently masculine or feminine. Second declension neuter nouns use the same endings as masculine, but with a few changes:
What are the third conjugation present tense verb endings?
How do you form third conjugation verbs in the present tense?
Drop -ere from the second principle part
Add the correct present tense ending
Note that the third conjugation is special, since the vowel before the -re is also dropped to conjugate the verb.
The men defend the king with their weapons.
Virī armīs suīs rēgem dēfendunt.
to defend - dēfendō, dēfendere, dēfendī, dēfensus.
The farmers bear arms.
Agricolae arma gerunt.
to wear, bear; to wage - gerō, gerere, gesī, gestus. Note that gerere is a third conjugation verb. The second principle part ending is similar to the second conjugation: -ere. There is no macron in the third conjugation ending.
The king wages war.
Rēx bellum gerit.
war - bellum, -ī (neuter).
The boy does not want a war.
Puer bellum nōn vult.
boy - puer, puerī (masculine). Compare to puella (girl).
The woman walks with the girls.
Fēmina cum puellīs ambulat.
with - cum (+ Ablative). Note that, while word order will normally not affect meaning, it can make some sentences with words like cum become ambiguous:
The woman walks with the girls.
The girls walk with the woman.
The farmers fight with (using) weapons.
Agricolae armīs pugnant.
The queen wants (there) to be harmony.
Rēgīna esse concordia vult.
harmony - concordia, -ae (feminine).
The farmer drives the cart with (using) a horse.
Agricola carrum equō agit.
to do; to drive; to discuss; to live, spend (time) - agō, agere, ēgī, actus. Note that this verb is extremely flexible, and can mean many things. Think about this: do yardwork; do the dishes; do homework; they all use the verb "do" but none of those verbs indicate the same action.
(Some) people see a woman in the forest.
Populī fēminam in silvā vident.
people - populus, -ī (masculine). Note that populus can be used in singular or plural to mean different things: in plural, it means "people," as in a group of individuals; in singular, it means "(the) people," like in "The Senate and People of Rome."
The boy goes out of the house.
Puer ē casā it.
out of, out from - ē, ex.
What is an enclitic syllable?
An enclitic is a single syllable added to the end of a word to give it additional meaning.
The queen and the women watch the forest.
Rēgīna et fēminae silvam spectant.
Rēgīna fēminaeque silvam spectant.
and - -que (enclitic). When a word has -que at the end, it is translated as "and ___," exactly as if the word were preceded by et.
The farmer wants a cart or a horse.
Agricola carrum aut equum vult.
Agricola carrum equumve vult.
or - aut.
or - -ve (enclitic). Similar to -que, any word with -ve added on the end is translated as "or ___," just like it were preceded by aut.
Do the women see the queen?
Fēminae rēgīnam vident?
Fēminaene rēgīnam vident?
Note that the second way is "more correct," since it specifically indicates that the sentence is a question.
The island is big.
Insula magna est.
big, great - magnus, -a, -um. Note that this adjective can be used to describe the size of things as well as the quality.
Magnus is also a famous cognomen (honorary name) awarded to (or claimed by) great men, such as Gnaeus Pompeiius Magnus - Pompey the Great.
The farmer saw either the queen or a woman in the forest.
Agricola aut rēgīnam aut fēminam in silvā spectāvit.
To say "either ... or" in Latin, just put aut before both options.
The girl wants both a horse and an island.
Puella et equum et insulam vult.
To say "both ... and" in Latin, just put et before both things.
She doesn't have a horse, nor (does she have) an island.
Equum nōn habet, neque insulam (habet).
nor - neque.
The farmer has neither horses nor a wagon.
Agricola neque equōs neque carrum habet.
To say "neither ... nor" in Latin, just put neque before both things.
The girls will never have a horse.
Puellae equum numquam habent.
never - numquam.
The man's guards are good.
Praesidia viri bona est.
guard, protection - praesidium, -iī (neuter). Remember that the Nominative and Accusative plural endingss for second declension are both -a, even though it looks like a feminine ending.
The entry hall (foyer) of the house is big.
Atrium casae magnum est.
entry hall - atrium, -iī (neuter).
The children walk to his house.
Līberī ad casam suam ambulant.
children - līberī, -ōrum (masculine). Note that this noun is always plural. To refer to one child, use either "boy" (puer), "girl" (puella), or "little one" (parvulus, from parvus).
The farmer invited the children to the house.
Agricola liberōs casae vocāvī.
to call, invite - vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātus.
He likes his duty (job).
Officium suum amat.
duty, office - officium, -iī (neuter).
She lives in the queen's house.
Rēgīnae in casā habitat.
In casā rēgīnae habitat.
to live - habitō, habitāre, habitāvī, habitātus.
Remember: When there aren't any conflicts with noun cases, word order doesn't affect meaning in Latin. This means you can rearrange words to make a sentence sound better.
The children's speed is great.
Celeritās liberōrum magna est.
speed - celeritās, celeritātis (feminine). Note that this is a third declension noun that follows the pattern -tās, -tātis, which is usually feminine.
I want to go home.
Īre domī vult.
home - domus, -ī (masculine). Note that domī here is in the Locative case.
The Locative is used to signify locations, similar to the Ablative of Place Where or Accusative of Place to Which. This is similar to English: you would say "I want to go home," not "I want to go to home."
For first and second declension singular, the Locative is the same as the Genitive singular. For all other nouns and all plurals, it is the same as the Ablative case.
She is a beautiful woman.
Pulchra fēmina est.
beautiful - pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum.
The voice of the people is great.
Vox populī magna est.
voice - vox, vocis (feminine). Note that this is a third declension noun that follows the pattern -x, -cis.
The "vox populi" is a common political term that means the "voice of the people," or more generally, whatever it is the people want.
The woman invited a gladiator to dinner.
Fēmina gladiātorem cēnae vocāvī.
gladiator - gladiator, gladiatoris (masculine).
Gladiators fight on sand to the death.
Gladiātorēs in arēnā pugnant ad mortem.
death - mors, mortis, mortium.