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Flashcards in Pronunciation Guide Deck (42):
1

What are the letters of the Latin Alphabet?

A B C D E F

G H I K L M

N O P Q R

S T U V X

Note: Some sources will use J for the consonant form of I. Others (including historical sources) will use V instead of U.

2

What is a macron?

A macron is a horizontal bar accent above some vowels in Latin.

Macrons help with pronouncing and differentiating certain words. Normally, a vowel with a macron is longer than one without. Macrons also sometimes affect word stress.

Latin vowels with macrons:

ā, ē, ī, ō, ū

3

A

aha!

Note the subtle difference in the sound of the two vowels in this word (they may be too similar to tell apart).

4

Ā

aha!

Note the subtle difference in the sound of the two vowels in this word (they may be too similar to tell apart).

5

B

bat

6

C

cat

In Latin, C is never pronounced like S.

7

D

dog

8

E

bet

9

Ē

bait

10

F

fog

11

G

golf

Note: In Latin, G is never pronounced like at the end of, e.g. gouge.

12

H

heat

13

I

(vowel)

wit

14

Ī

wheat

15

I

(consonant)

Yellow

e.g. ius, iuris

Note that sometimes, this letter may be written as a J.

16

K

Camp

17

L

losing

18

M

make

19

N

now

20

O

odd

21

Ō

ode

22

P

plant

23

Qu

quick

Note: QU is pronounced in Latin just like it is in English, but not like it is pronounced in French.

24

R

port

Note: In Latin, R is sometimes given a slight roll.

25

S

stamp

Note: In Latin, S is never pronounced like Z (e.g. his).

26

T

trot

27

U

look

Note that sometimes, this letter may be written as a V.

28

Ū

Luke

29

V

water

Note: In Latin, V is never pronounced like in English (e.g. vase).

30

X

rex, sticks, figs

Note: In Latin, X is the combination of a K (or G) with an S. It is never pronounced like a Z like "xylophone," and it is never pronounced gutterally like in German.

31

ae

eye

32

au

how

33

ei

eight

34

eu

Europe

35

oe

foil

36

ui

gooey

This diphthong only exists in five words: huius, cuius, huic, cui, hui.

Otherwise, the two vowels are pronounced separately.

37

sum

sum

Because sum has only one syllable, that syllable must be the last one in the word (the ultima). The ultima is never stressed in Latin.

38

laudat

'lau.dat

Because laudat has two syllables, the stress is always on the penult (the penultimate, or "almost-last" syllable).

39

parāmus

pa.'rā.mus

 

Because the penult has a macron, it automatically gets the stress.

40

cassiopeia

cas.si.o.'pei.a

Because the penult has a diphthong (ei), it is stressed.

41

insula

'in.su.la

Because insula has three syllables, and the penult has no macron or diphthong, the stress is on the antepenult (the "before-almost-last" syllable).

42

agricola

a.'gri.co.la

Because the penult has no macron or diphthong, the stress is on the antepenult (the "before-almost-last" syllable). The stress cannot be on any syllables other than the penult or antepenult.