to be - sum, esse, fuī, --- (irregular). Note that esse does not have a fourth principle part like most verbs (you can't "be been" anything).
I am a farmer
I am - sum (irregular). Note that when using the verb "to be," there is no "object" in the sentence: instead, what follows the verb in English is called the "Predicate Nominative," and is declined in the Nominative case. (The Predicate Nominative of this sentence is in bold: "I am a farmer.")
You (singular) are new.
You (sg.) are - es (irregular).
It is a horse.
He/she/it is - est (irregular). Remember that the "object" of "to be" is a Predicate Nominative.
He is good.
good - bonus, -a, -um.
We are good.
We are - sumus (irregular).
You (plural) are women.
You (pl.) are - estis (irregular).
They are small.
They are - sunt (irregular).
What is the present tense conjugation of the irregular verb esse ("to be")?
The students prepare.
student - discipulus, -ī (masculine).
student - discipula, -ae (feminine).
Note that if a group of students contains boys and girls, use the masculine form.
The queen is good.
Rēgīna bona est.
queen - rēgīna, -ae (feminine).
The farmer shouts.
to shout - exclāmō, exclāmāre, exclāmāvī, exclāmātus.
Life is good.
Vīta bona est.
life - vīta, -ae (feminine).
I like to swim.
to swim - natō, natāre, natāvī, natātus.
The queen shouts to the woman.
Regīna feminae exclamat.
The Dative Case: Indirect objects in Latin are expressed by using the Dative case endings. Whenever you want the subject to give something to or do something for the object, use the Dative case, not the Accusative.
The farmer swims to the queen.
Agricola rēgīnae natat.
The farmer's son prepares water for the horses.
Filius agricolae aquam equīs parat.
son - filius, -iī (masculine).
The queen's daughter loves the horse.
Filia rēgīnae equum amat.
daughter - filia, -ae (feminine).
The sailor's horse is small.
Equus nautae parvus est.
sailor - nauta, -ae (masculine).
"Where are you, Brutus?"
"Ubi es, Brute?"
Vocative case: In speech, when addressing a person (or thing) that noun is put in the Vocative case. Normally, the Vocative looks just like the Nominative, but with second declension singular nouns ending in -us, that ending changes to -e, and nouns ending in -ius change to -ī.
The queen fights for victory.
Rēgīna victōriae pugnat.
victory - victōria, -ae (feminine). Many English words that end in -y are derived from Latin words that end in -ia (e.g. gloria, luxuria, militaria).
The farmer fights the horse.
Agricola equum pugnat.
to fight - pugnō, pugnāre, pugnāvī, pugnātus.
We seize the forest.
to seize (i.e. capture) - occupō, occupāre, occupāvī, occupātus.
The woman prepares dinner.
Fēmina cēnam parat.
dinner - cēna, -ae (feminine).
What is the Ablative of Means?
The Ablative of Means is a form of the Ablative case that is used to show how (i.e. by what means) an action is done.
There is no preposition used with the Ablative of Means.
They fight with a sword.
They fight by means of a sword.
sword - gladius, -iī (masculine). Note that gladiō is in the Ablative case, here used as the Ablative of Means.
Also note that, for this word, the Genitive case is shown as -iī -- this is to make sure that the Genitive becomes gladiī with a double i, not gladī, with only one. (It is still a second declension noun.)
What are the first declension noun endings?
What are the second declension noun endings?
to be able to
to be able - possum, posse, potui, --- (irregular). Note that to say, e.g. to be able to swim, conjugate posse as necessary, then use the infinitive of the other verb.
I can swim.
I can, am able - possum (irregular). Note that to say "I am able to ___," you do not conjugate the verb esse ("to be") and combine it with posse.
You (singular) can fight.
you (sg.) can, are able - potes (irregular).
He can praise.
he/she/it can, is able - potest (irregular).
We can swim.
we can, are able to - possumus (irregular).
You (plural) can fight.
you (pl.) can, are able to - potestis (irregular).
They can praise.
they can, are able - possunt (irregular).
to go - eō, īre, iī, ītus (irregular). Note that the third principle part can also appear as īvī.
I go - eō (irregular).
You (singular) go.
you (sg.) go - īs (irregular).
he/she/it goes - it (irregular).
we go - īmus (irregular).
You (plural) go.
you (pl.) go - ītis (irregular).
they go - eunt (irregular).
My horse is good.
Equus meus bonus est.
my, mine - meus, -a, -um.
The road is long.
Via longa est.
long - longus, -a, -um.
It is difficult to seize.
Occupāre dūrus est.
hard, difficult - dūrus, -a, -um.
Sailors like small waves.
Nautae parvās undās amant.
wave - unda, -ae (feminine).
My friend fights with a sword.
Amīcus meus gladiō pugnat.
friend - amīcus, -ī (masculine).
friend - amīca, -ae (feminine).
You carry water to me.
Aquam mihi portās.