What is an infinitive?
An infinitive is an unconjugated verb, normally translated in English as "to verb." There are usually six kinds of infinitives in Latin:
1. Present Active (to verb)
2. Present Passive (to be verbed)
3. Perfect Active (to have verbed)
4. Perfect Passive (to have been verbed)
5. Future Active (to be about to verb)
6. [rarely] Future Passive (to be about to be verbed)
What is the complementary infinitive?
The complementary infinitive is the use of an infinitive verb to complement the main verb of a sentence or phrase, e.g. "I want to ride a horse."
The complementary infinitive is usually used with posse, velle, and nōlle.
Amelia wants to see Marcus.
Amelia videre Marcum vult.
Reminder: With verbs like "want" or "can", use the complementary infinitive to create a compound verb.
What is the subjective infinitive?
The subjective infinitive is the use of an infinitive verb as the subject of a sentence or phrase, e.g. "To err is human."
The subjective infinitive can also be translated in English as "Erring is human."
It is necessary to work in the fields.
Working in the fields is necessary.
Laborāre in agrīs necesse est.
it is necessary - necesse est (impersonal). Note that necesse est is "impersonal" -- it is not conjugated normally, but always in the third person singular. This is similar to some English phrases, e.g. "It is raining," "It's not fair," "It's okay for you to do that."
It is permitted to praise the horse.
Praising the horse is permitted.
Equum laudāre licet.
it is permitted - licet (impersonal).
What is the objective infinitive?
The objective infinitive is the use of an infinitive verb as the object of a sentence or phrase, e.g. "She doesn't want to go."
Cornelia doesn't want the farmer to go.
Cornēlia agricolam īre nōn vult.
Note that when the object of a sentence contains a verb, that verb should be an infinitive, and its subject (if it has one) should be in the Accusative case (the Nominative is only used for the subject of the main clause).
The horse does not speak.
Equus nōn dīcit.
to speak, say - dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictus. Remember that the -ere ending of the second principle part means this is a third conjugation verb.
How do you form an indirect statement in Latin, and what is its purpose?
The indirect statement is an objective infinitive clause.
It is used to convey something using an "above-the-neck" verb -- talking, thinking, believing, etc.
In English, an indirect statement takes the underlined form: He says that she has a horse. In Latin, there is no need to translate "that" because the indirect statement carries the same meaning.
Julia says (that) Marcus wants a new horse.
Iulia dīcit Marcum novum equum cupere.
to desire, want, wish - cupiō, cupere, cupīvī, cupitus. Note that this is a third conjugation verb, but also note the first principle part ending: -iō. Unlike other third conjugation verbs, when conjugated it has an extra -i- before the verb endings. This is called the "third (-io) conjugation."
Also note that this sentence uses the indirect statement: The sentence only conveys what Julia said, but it informs the reader what Marcus wants nonetheless.
Gaius thinks he is a horse.
Gaius equum esse putat.
to think - putō, putāre, putāvī, putātus.
Augusta sets the horses free.
Augusta frees the horses.
Augusta equōs expedit.
to set free - expediō, expedīre, expedīvī, expedītus. Note that because the second principle part ends in -īre, this is a fourth conjugation verb. Third (-io) and fourth conjugation verbs are conjugated very similarly (both have an -i- in the root).
Cassius makes weapons.
Cassius arma facit.
to do, to make - faciō, facere, fēcī, factus. Note that this verb is used with many idiomatic expressions to mean various things, similarly to dāre.
The horse is making noise.
Equus clāmōrem facit.
noise, shouting - clāmōr, clāmōris (maculine). Note that this noun follows the pattern of -ōr, -ōris, which is usually masculine.
Octavia loves the sound of the songs.
Octavia clāmōrem carmenum amat.
song - carmen, carminis (neuter). Remember that this is a third declension noun. This one follows the pattern of -en, -inis, which is usually neuter.
What are the third declension i-stem endings for masculine and feminine?
Crassus goes to the new city.
Crassus ad urbem novum it.
city - urbs, urbis, urbium (feminine). Note that this noun has three forms shown: the Nominative, and Genitive singular, and Genitive plural. Also note that the Genitive plural of some third declension nouns, like this one, have an additional -i- before some endings. This third declension noun follows the pattern -s, -is, (-ium).
The citizens do not like horses (to be) in the city.
Civēs equōs in urbe (esse) nōn amant.
citizen - civis, civis, civium (masculine & feminine). Note that this noun has three forms shown: because the Nominative and Genitive appear the same in the singular, the Genitive plural is also shown after them. Note also that this noun can be either gender, depending on the people being described.
What are the third declension i-stem endings for neuter?
I see the sea.
sea - mare, maris, marium (neuter).
The sword is sharp.
Gladius acer est.
sour, sharp - acer, acris, acre. Note that this is a third declension adjective. The three forms shown are the masculine, feminine, and neuter Nominative forms.
War is not easy.
Bellum nōn facile est.
easy - facilis, facile. Note that this is a third declension adjective, with only two endings shown. The first ending is for masculine and feminine, and the second is for neuter.
The queen is happy to see the Cornelia.
Rēgīna Cornēliam vidēre fēlix est.
happy, fortunate - fēlix, fēlicis. Note that this is a third declension adjective, but the second form here is the Genitive singular. Some adjectives, such as this one, have the same form for all three genders.
to bear, to bring
to bear, bring - ferō, ferre, tūlī, lātus (irregular). Be careful to learn the extremely irregular third and fourth principle parts of this verb.
I bear a sword.
I bear, bring - ferō (irregular).
You (singular) bear the sword of the queen.
Rēgīnae gladium fers.
you (sg.) bear, bring - fers (irregular).
She brings the queen to the island.
Rēgīnam ad insulam fert.
he/she/it bears, brings - fert (irregular).
We bring swords for the queen.
Gladiōs rēgīnae ferimus.
we bear, bring - fermius (irregular).
You (plural) bring horses for the farmers.
Equōs agricolīs fertis.
you (pl.) bear, bring - fertis (irregular). Note that the ending of this verb is also slightly irregular for a third conjugation verb: -tis, not -itis.
The woods bear weapons.
("Soldiers are hiding in the forest.")
Silvae arma ferunt.
they bear, bring - ferunt (irregular).
The farmer works in his field.
Agricola in agrō suō laborat.
his, hers, its - suus, -a, -um.
to give - dō, dāre, dedī, datus (irregular).
I give the girl a horse.
Puellae equum dō.
I give - dō (irregular).
You (singular) give the farmer a sword.
Agricolae gladium dās.
you (sg.) give - dās (irregular).
He gives the boys swords.
Puerīs gladiōs dat.
he/she/it gives - dat (irregular).
We give girls horses.
Equōs puellīs dāmus.
we give - dāmus (irregular).
You (plural) give women to the queen.
Feminās rēgīnae dātis.
you (pl.) give - datis (irregular).
They give the horses a forest.
Equīs silvam dant.
they give - dant (irregular).
The boy loves his dog.
Puer suum canem amat.
dog - canis, -is (masculine).
Rome is not a flat city.
Rōma urbs nōn plāna est.
flat - plānus, -a, -um.
Rome was build around seven hills in Western Italy.
My brother is courageous.
(Lit. My brother has courage.)
Frāter meus virtūtem habet.
brother - frāter, frātris (masculine).
My sister is beautiful.
Soror mea pulchra est.
sister - soror, sororis (feminine).
His father is the king.
Pāter suus rēx est.
father - pāter, pātris (masculine).
Your mother shouted at the goat.
Māter tua caprī exclāmāvit.
mother - māter, mātris (feminine).
There are many lighthouses in the city.
(Lit. There are many houses of light in the city.)
Multae casae lūcis in urbe sunt.
light - lux, lūcis (feminine). Note that "lighthouse" would be translated as "casa lucis."