Flashcards in BEHP 5012 Unit 5 A Deck (35):
In Applied Behavior Analysis, experimental designs involve the repeated and systematic presentation and removal of a(n) ___, while
measuring changes in the ___, and holding potential ___ constant.
Independent variable; Dependent variable; Extraneous variables
The two primary goals of the various experimental designs in Applied Behavior Analysis are to X and to Y .
X = Demonstrate functional relations between the IV and the DV; Y = Evaluate interventions when implemented
Experimental designs are concerned with which of the following?
W = internal validity
X = social validity
Y = external validity
Z = data validity
W and Y
“The extent to which an experimental design demonstrates that measured changes in behavior are due to the systematic manipulation of the
environment, and not due to uncontrolled extraneous variables” is a good definition for:
Which of the following is considered the top priority in the experimental evaluation of interventions in Applied Behavior Analysis?
Which of the following is not an extraneous variable that poses a threat to internal validity?
Diffusion of treatment, maturation, and testing are all threats to internal validity. Carryover effect is a type of multiple
Which threat to internal validity occurs when the introduction of the independent variable coincides with other events in the person’s life (often
outside of the experimental context)?
The “practice effect” threat to internal validity is more formally known as
John, a behavior specialist at school, collects baseline data on Mary’s frequency of crying at school by observing for 2 consecutive days in
her morning class session. After John implements an intervention, Mary’s crying during class data shows a sharp decrease. Later he learns that Mary was not sleeping well due to severe hay fever during those two days of baseline. What type of threat to internal validity does this represent in terms of the apparent effectiveness of treatment in reducing Mary’s crying at school?
Regression towards the mean
Nancy and Tara live together in a state-run residential facility for individuals with severe intellectual disabilities. Both exhibit several toilet accidents per day. Gerda implements a non-concurrent-multiple-baseline-across-subjects toileting program, with Nancy as the first subject. Part of the program involves providing Nancy with juice when she toilets appropriately. Nancy’s toileting quickly becomes independent.
Another staff person, Louise, is watching all of this, and unknown to Gerda, Louise begins to give Tara juice whenever Tara toilets
appropriately. When Gerda decides to implement the same procedure with Tara, and begins to collect baseline on Tara’s accidents, her rate of accidents is already near zero. What threat to the establishment of internal validity most likely occurred in this case?
Diffusion of treatment
Rob, a behavior analyst at a residential facility, is in charge of implementing a program to increase Jack’s tooth-brushing before going to bed.
During baseline, Craig (a staff person) reports many refusals by Jack. After Bob’s written intervention is implemented, Jessie, a new staff
person, reports that Jack still refuses to brush his teeth. Later on, Bob learns that Craig was reporting refusals appropriately – Jack had been
going to bed without brushing during baseline— but that following the initial implementation of the program, Jack actually began to regularly
brush his teeth before bed. However, Jessie has been incorrectly reporting “refusals” as Jack not brushing teeth within 5-minutes of her
saying, “Jack it is time to brush teeth”. Since the program was implemented, Jack typically begins to brush teeth about 10 minutes after being
asked to brush, and then goes to bed – which Jessie has been marking as a “refusal”. Jessie’s reporting of Jack’s delays in brushing as
incidents of “refusal to brush” demonstrates which type of threat to internal validity?
Which of the following threats to internal validity are LEAST likely to be relevant to single-subject designs?
Selection bias and attrition
Which of the following reduce threats to internal validity?
X = Establish stability of the behavior before changing phases
Y = Take repeated measurement of the dependent variable during all phases
Z = Probe components of the treatment during baseline to establish efficacy
X and Y but not Z
This helps establish internal validity by demonstrating the effects of the independent variable across phase changes, as well as across
behavior, subjects, settings, or even across studies.
In behavior analysis, single-case designs are used by _____________.
both researchers and clinicians as the primary analytical method
Single case designs are also known as
X = Single-study designs
Y = Single-subject designs
Z = Within-subject designs
Y and Z but not X
Which of the following statements about group designs is NOT true:
Each individual is exposed to every level of the IV
Sandra, a behavior analyst, is testing the effects of using praise and edibles to increase the frequency of hand-raising behavior when
questions are asked by the teacher. She is currently collecting baseline data on Jamesha’s performance, after which she will introduce the
intervention, and compare baseline and treatment data for Jamesha. If the treatment appears successful, Sandra plans to withdraw
treatment, and then re-initiate it a second time, collecting data throughout the process. This example best describes which design?
Which of the following statements does NOT apply to the single subject design?
Inferential statistics are used for at least part of the analysis
In a single-case design, the independent variable is typically introduced …
when the DV has stabilized within a reasonably narrow range around the trend
Look at the following charts showing various baseline periods for a target behavior for reduction. If treatment phase 1 is introduced
immediately following the final data point shown on each chart, which chart reflects that choice as the most appropriate decision to intervene
at that point in the data path?
Baseline is best defined as:
Assessment of a DV prior to the first systematic change in the IV
The phrase, “As long as necessary, as short as possible.” refers to :
The need for stability in the baseline phase must be balanced against the need for an immediate intervention
The graph below represents the baseline and affirmation phase of a baseline logic analysis. Data paths “A” and “C” represent recorded data on a dependent variable. Data path “B” (inside the box) represents a(n) X dependent variable if Y .
X = Prediction of the
Y = Treatment was ineffective or not introduced
All of the following statements are true regarding an A—B design, EXCEPT:
Due to its limitations, this design can never demonstrate an effect
The graph below (A-B design) illustrates an evaluation of a treatment for the reduction of problem behavior. The analysis so far suggests that: https://fit.instructure.com/assessment_questions/15390518/files/24322126/download?verifier=XZWi1s4ek3zpGPAqWEsPtAbBrbH0erEwwmFzFuly
The treatment appears to have had an effect, but this effect may be due to extraneous variables
Which of the following statements is true? You may introduce a new phase when
The level of a behavior targeted for reduction is high enough to allow for the detection of a behavior change across phases
What three factors does one examine when determining “steady state” responding prior to an intervention change?
Variability, level, and trend
Identify the withdrawal/reversal design from the charts below
This is the only chart with 4 phases, where baseline if followed by treatment, then withdrawal of treatment, then ending in treatment: the A—B—A—B design.
Which of the following statements about the withdrawal design is false?
It does not require data stability prior to phase changes
Moe, Larry and Curley work in a restaurant, at a baseball park, and on a ship. They want to increase their arriving to work on time, staying at work to the end of the day, and getting back from lunch break on time. They hire a behavior analyst, Groucho, to help them with this problem. The behavior analyst begins by implementing a program for Moe, at the restaurant, for arriving on time. When Moe reaches the criterion for success, and exhibits stable on-time performance at the restaurant for 5 days, the behavior analyst next applies the intervention to Larry, and then to Curley. Which type of multiple baseline does this represent? Multiple baseline across…
Which of the following is NOT a major concern when using a multiple baseline design?
All of these are concerns:
Interdependent behaviors influence each other, and this may obscure results from a multiple-baseline across functionally related behavior design/ Long baselines increase the likelihood of effects from extraneous variables/ Long baselines can lead to delays in treatment
What kind of design is pictured below?
Non-concurrent multiple baseline
What is one of the primary benefits of the multiple probe design?
Reduces the data collection requirement on caregivers, which may be impractical or costly