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SAT II BIOLOGY > Biochemistry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (32):
1

Ground level

Electrons in the lowest available energy level

2

Excited state

When an atom absorbs energy and its electrons move to a higher energy level

3

Ionic bonds are between?

Metal to nonmetal

4

Covalent bonds are between?

non-metals

5

Anion

An atom that gains electrons; a NEGATIVE ion

6

Cation

A POSITIVE ion; loses an electron

7

What is the result of a covalent bond?

Molecule

8

What kind of molecule is CO2?

Nonpolar

9

Specific heat

The amount of heat that must be absorbed for 1 gram of a substance to change its temperature 1 Celsius

10

Transpirational-pull cohesion tension

Water moves up a tall tree from roots to leaves without energy

11

Spring overturn

-ice covers surface of water when cold and melts in spring
-Becomes denser water, and sinks to the bottom, causing water to circulate throughout the lake
-Oxygen from the surface is returned to the depths and nutrients released by bottom-dwelling bacteria are carried up
-The cycling of teh nutrients in the lake

12

pH

-A measure of acidity and alkalinity of a solution
-Negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration in moles per liter
-1=0.1 molar; 2=0.01 molar

13

Acids

-release hydrogen ions
- start with a hydrogen

14

Bases

-accept hydrogen ions with hydroxide ion
-ends with OH

15

Bicarbonate ion

The most important buffer in human blood (HCO3-)

16

Glucose + Glucose

Maltose + Water

17

Glucose + Galactose

Lactose + Water

18

Glucose + Fructose

Sucrose + Water

19

Where is glycogen stored in humans?

Liver and skeletal muscle

20

Saturated fats

-From animals
-Single bonds between carbons

21

Unsaturated fats

-From plants
-At least 1 double bond between Carbons
-fewer hydrogen atoms

22

3 uses of lipids

1. Energy storage: 1 g = 9 calories
2. Structural: Phospholipids
3.Endocrine: Some are hormones

23

Primary Structure of protein

Sequence of amino acids that make up the protein chance

24

Secondary Structure of protein

Hydrogen bonding within the molecule

25

Tertiary structure

-3D shape or conformation of a protein
- most directly determines the way it functions and its specificity

26

Quaternary structure

Proteins that consist of more than 1 polypeptide chain (hemoglobin)

27

substrate

The chemical an enzyme works on

28

Induced fit model

-As substrate enters the active site, it induces the enzyme to alter its shape so the substrate fits better

29

Enzyme function with the assistance from?

Cofactors(minerals) and coenzymes (vitamins)

30

Cofactors

minerals

31

coenzymes

vitamins

32

Prions

-Infectious proteins that cause brain diseases
-A misfolded version of a protein found in the brains and causes other proteins to misfold the same way