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SAT II BIOLOGY > The Cell > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Cell Deck (28):
1

Leeuwenhoek

Invented the first microscope

2

Robert Hooke

-Studied cork, "cell"

3

Schleiden

Plants are made of cells

4

Schwann

Animals are made of cells

5

Virchow

cell reproduction

6

Cell theory

1. All living things are made of cells
2.All cells arise from other cells
3. Cells are the basic unit of all organism

7

Diameters of plant and animal cells

10-100 micrometers

8

Theory of endosymbiosis

Eukaryotic cells containing organells like mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved when free-living prokaryotes took up permanent residence inside larger prokaryotic cells about 2 billion years ago

9

Smooth ER

-Makes steroid hormones and lipids
-Detoxifies cell
-Carbohydrate (glycogen) metabolism

10

Apoptosis

-programmed cell death
-critical to the embryonic development of multicellular organisms

11

Contractile vacuoles

Protists; pump excess water out of cell

12

Chromoplasts

store carotenoid pigments

13

Microtubules

Thick hollow tubes that make up the cilia, flagella, and spindle fibers

14

Microfilaments

-made of the protein actin; support
Enable:
1. animal cells to form a cleavage furrow
2. Move pseudopods in amoeba
3. Skeletal muscles to contract by sliding along myosin filaments

15

Middle lamella

Cell plate in plant cell division

16

Cytosol

Semiliquid portion of the cytoplasm

17

Cyclosis

Organells get carried around the cell as the cytoplasm cycles around the cell

18

Plasmolysis

Cell shrinking

19

Exocytosis

Active release of molecules from cell

20

Pinocytosis

-Cell drinking
-Uptake of large, dissolved molecules (tiny particles)
-Endocytosis

21

Phagocytosis

-Engulfing of large particles by pseudopods
-Human white cells, amoeba

22

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

-Take large quantities of very specific substances
-bind to receptors on membrane

23

Egestion

Removal of undigested waste

24

Irritability

Ability to respond to stimuli

25

Phase-contrast microscope

-A light microscope that enhances contrast
-Useful in examining living, unstained cells

26

Ultracentrifuge

-Study tissue
-Isolate specific components of cells in large quantities by cell fractionation
-Tissue in blender; the liquid(homogenate) is spun at high speed in an ultracentrifuge and separate into layers based on density

27

Freeze fracture

-Freeze-etching
-study details of membrane structure under an electron microscope

28

Tissue culture

-Study the properties of specific cells in vitro(lab)