Respiration / Gas Exchange Flashcards Preview

SAT II BIOLOGY > Respiration / Gas Exchange > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiration / Gas Exchange Deck (14):
1

Path of air

Nose - pharynx - larynx - trachea - bronchi - bronchioles - alveoli

2

Nose

  • adds moisture and warmth to inhaled air
  • filter

3

Pharynx

involved in diverting ingested material into esophagus and away from lungs to prevent choking

4

Larynx

Contains membrane that vibrates in a controlled manner with the passage of air to create the voice

voice box

5

Trachea

Carries air through the vulnerable throat protected by flexible but strong rings of cartilage

At the end of trachea, respiratory passage splits into lungs

6

Alveoli

  • Tiny air sacs 
  • Site of gas exchange in the lungs
  • Have thin, moist walls
  • Surrounded by cappilaries
  • Oxygen passes from the alveolar into the blood by diffusion through the alveolar and capillary walls
  • CO2 and H2O pass out

7

Lungs

  • move air between the exterior atmosphere and an interior air space that is close to capillaries
  • bound by ribs and chest wall and by the diaphragm on the bottom
  • A membrane called a pleura surrounds the lungs

8

Pleura

9

Why is air drawn into the lungs by negative pressure?

The internal pressure inside the chest cavity is lower than the air pressure surrounding the body

10

Inhalation

  • AKA inspiration
  • ribs - up and out
  • diaphragm - down
  • creates a larger chest cavity and a vaccum that draws air

11

Exhalation

  • ribs - down and in
  • diaphragm - up
  • decreases size of chest cavity
  • forces air out of lungs
  • doesn't require muscle contraction

12

Medulla

  • Controls breathing rate
  • monitors carbon dioxide levels in the blood 
  • senses changes in the pH of blood
  • ph 7.4 or lower and excess CO
    • triggers autonomic nerves from the medulla to increase breathing rate

13

How is oxygen carried in the human blood?

By the respiratory pigment hemoglobin, which combines loosely with oxygen molecules to form the molecule oxyhemoglobin

14

Carbonic acid-bicarbonate ion system

Carbon dioxide is carried in the plama as part of the reversilbe blood-buffering carbonic aci-bicarbonate ion system

Maintains the blood at a constant pH of 7.4