The Human Immune System Flashcards Preview

SAT II BIOLOGY > The Human Immune System > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Human Immune System Deck (30):
1

Nonspecific Defense

Contains 2 lines of defense

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First Line of Defense

-A barrier that helps prevent pathogens from entering the body
-Skin
-Mucous membrane
-Cilia in respiratory system
-Stomach acid

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Second Line of Defense

-Limit the spread of invaders in advance of specific immune responses
1. Inflammatory response
2. Phagocytes
3. Interferons

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Inflammatory response

-Swelling, redness, warmth, soreness
-To increase the blood supply to the area, and increase nutrients(oxygen and white blood cells)
-Histamine
-Increase body temperature speeds up immune system

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Histamine

-Triggers vasodilation (enlargement of blood vessels)
-increases blood supply to area, bring phagocytes
-responsible for symptoms of the cold

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vasodilation

Enlargement of blood vessels

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Phagocytes

-eat invading microbes

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Macrophages

-A type of white blood cell that extend pseudopods and engulf microbes

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Interferons

Chemicals released by the immune sytem to block against VIRAL infections

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Specific Defense

-Third line of defense
-Specific and consists of lymphocytes

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Lymphatic tissue

spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, adenoids

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Antigens

Anything that triggers an immune response

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B lymphocytes

-Produce antiBodies against a SPECIFIC antigen --> humoral response

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T lymphocytes

Fight pathogens by hand-to-hand combat ---> cell mediated response

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Humoral response

B lymphocytes

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Cell mediated response

T lymphocytes

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Antibodies

-neutralize antigens by binding to them and by forming an antigen-antibody complex that can be eaten by phagocytes

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Clonal selection

-Mechanism in immunity
-Once an antigen binds to a specific B or T lymphocyte, the antibody becomes very metabolically active and clones itself
-Then it differentiates into plasma cells and memory cells

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Plasma cells

-Fight antigens immediately - primary immune response
-Don't live long

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Memory cells

-Remain circulating in the blood for a lifetime
-specific for every viral infection you've gotten or vaccination
-immunological memory

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Immunological memory

-prevents you from getting any specific viral infection more than once

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Types of immunity

Passive and active

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Passive immunity

-TEMPORARY
-Borrowed antibodies that don't survive for long
-ex/ maternal antibodies

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Active immunity

-PERMANENT
-You make the antibodies yourself

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Cross-match

Before someone receives a transfusion of blood, samples of the recipient's and donor's blood must be mixed in the lab to determine and ensure compatibility

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AIDs

-take advantage of a collapsed immune system

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HIV

-attacks helper T cells
- retrovirus; transcribes in reverse in cell

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Allergies

-hypersensitive immune responses to certain substances called allergens
-release of excessive amounts of histamine

29

Anaphylactic shock

A life-threatening allergic response

30

Autoimmune diseases

-Caused by a mistake of the immune system
-Can't distinguish between self and nonself
-Perceives certain structures in the body as foreign and produces antibodies to attack them