Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

SAT II BIOLOGY > Endocrine System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (45)
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1

Thymosin

Stimulates T lymphocytes as part of the immune response

2

Pheromenes

  • In urine of a dog
  • Carry a message between different individuals of a species

3

Adrenal Medulla

  • epinephrine (adrenaline)
  • Nonepinephrine (noradrenaline)

4

Tropic Hormones

  • Hormones that stimulate other glands to release hormones and can have a far-reaching effect

5

Adrenal Cortex

  • STimulated by ACTH to secrete steroid hormones together known as corticosteroids(from cholesterol)
    • glucocorticoids
    • mineralocorticoids
    • cortical sex hormones

6

What is the endocrine center of the pancreas?

Islets of Langerhans

7

Parathormone

  • Raises blood calcium levels
  • regulates calcium and phosphate balance between blood, bone, and other tissues
  • Increased horomone increases bone formation

8

Progesterone

Promotes uterine lining growth

 

9

Hormones

Chemical messengers produced in 1 tissue and carried by the blood to act on other body parts

Produced in ductless (endocrine) glands

10

Pineal

  • In brain
  • Melatonin

11

Androgens

Support sperm production and promote secondary sex characteristics of males

12

Growth Hormone (GH)

Secreted by Anterior pituitary

Stimulates growth of bones and body tissues

 

13

Thymus 

  • In neck
  • THymosin

14

Glucocorticoids

  • Secreted by adrenal cortex
  • ex/ cortisol, cortisone
  • raise blood sugar levels by gluconeogenesis and decrease protein synthesis
  • reduce body's immunological and inflammatory responses
  • elevated cortisol repsresses ACTH and lowers cortisol levels, acting as a feedback loop to maintain constant coritsol levels

15

Hypothalamus

  • bridge between the endocrine and nervous systems
  • acts part of the nervous system when it sends electrical signals to adrenal gland to release adrenaline
  • acts part of endocrine gland when it produces oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone stored in the posterior pituitary
  • body's thermostat
  • centers for regulating hunger and thirst

16

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

Produced by hypthalamus

SEcreted by posterior pituitary

Promotes kidney to reduce water loss 

17

Glucagon

  • Secreted by Pancreas
  • Raises blood glucose levels
  • breakdown glycogen into glucose

18

Anterior pitutarry

  • Growth Hormone (GH) 
  • Luteininzing Hormone (LH)
  • Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH)
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  • Prolactin

FLAT PIG

19

Insulin

  • Secreted by Pancreas
  • Lowers blood glucose levels when glucose concentrations are high(like after a meal) 
  • stimulates muscles and liver to convert glucose to glycogen

20

Estrogen

  • Stimulates uterine lining
  • promotes development and maintenance of primary and secondary female characteristics

21

Oxytocin

Produced by hypothalamus

Secreted by posterior pituitary

Stimulates contractions of the uterus and mammary glands

22

Ovaries

  • Estrogen
  • Progesterone

23

Negative Feedback

  • Maintains homeostasis
  • ex/ body maintains thyroxin levels. WHen low, hypotalamus stimulates anterior pituitary to release a thyroid-stimulating hormoen to relase more thyroxin

24

Pancreas 

  • endocrine function centered in the islets of Langerhans
  • Insulin
  • Glucagon

25

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

  • Secreted by anterior pituitary
  • Stimulates ovaries and testes
  • Induces testes to mature by beginning to secrete testosterone
  • stimulates ovulation of the primary oocyte from the follicle

26

Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Secreted by anterior pituitary

Stimulates gonads to prodoce sperm and ova

27

Melatonin

Secreted by Pineal

Invloved in biorhythms

28

Andrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids

29

Feedback Mechanism

A self-regulating mechanism that increases/decreases an action or the level of a substance

30

Peptide Hormones

  • large, hydrophilic, charged
  • can't diffuse across the plasma membrane
  • Protein receptors they bind to are located on the cell suface
    • activates receptor and causes it to transmit a signal into the cell
    •  release secondary messengers(c-AMP) in the cell that amplify the signal and alter cell activities
  • produced as large inactive pro-hormones that are cleaved by proteases into smaller active peptides before released
  • stored in secretory vesicles in the cytoplasm waiting for signal to be dumped out into the blood
  • Can act quickly