Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

SAT II BIOLOGY > Endocrine System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (45):
1

Thymosin

Stimulates T lymphocytes as part of the immune response

2

Pheromenes

  • In urine of a dog
  • Carry a message between different individuals of a species

3

Adrenal Medulla

  • epinephrine (adrenaline)
  • Nonepinephrine (noradrenaline)

4

Tropic Hormones

  • Hormones that stimulate other glands to release hormones and can have a far-reaching effect

5

Adrenal Cortex

  • STimulated by ACTH to secrete steroid hormones together known as corticosteroids(from cholesterol)
    • glucocorticoids
    • mineralocorticoids
    • cortical sex hormones

6

What is the endocrine center of the pancreas?

Islets of Langerhans

7

Parathormone

  • Raises blood calcium levels
  • regulates calcium and phosphate balance between blood, bone, and other tissues
  • Increased horomone increases bone formation

8

Progesterone

Promotes uterine lining growth

 

9

Hormones

Chemical messengers produced in 1 tissue and carried by the blood to act on other body parts

Produced in ductless (endocrine) glands

10

Pineal

  • In brain
  • Melatonin

11

Androgens

Support sperm production and promote secondary sex characteristics of males

12

Growth Hormone (GH)

Secreted by Anterior pituitary

Stimulates growth of bones and body tissues

 

13

Thymus 

  • In neck
  • THymosin

14

Glucocorticoids

  • Secreted by adrenal cortex
  • ex/ cortisol, cortisone
  • raise blood sugar levels by gluconeogenesis and decrease protein synthesis
  • reduce body's immunological and inflammatory responses
  • elevated cortisol repsresses ACTH and lowers cortisol levels, acting as a feedback loop to maintain constant coritsol levels

15

Hypothalamus

  • bridge between the endocrine and nervous systems
  • acts part of the nervous system when it sends electrical signals to adrenal gland to release adrenaline
  • acts part of endocrine gland when it produces oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone stored in the posterior pituitary
  • body's thermostat
  • centers for regulating hunger and thirst

16

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

Produced by hypthalamus

SEcreted by posterior pituitary

Promotes kidney to reduce water loss 

17

Glucagon

  • Secreted by Pancreas
  • Raises blood glucose levels
  • breakdown glycogen into glucose

18

Anterior pitutarry

  • Growth Hormone (GH) 
  • Luteininzing Hormone (LH)
  • Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH)
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  • Prolactin

FLAT PIG

19

Insulin

  • Secreted by Pancreas
  • Lowers blood glucose levels when glucose concentrations are high(like after a meal) 
  • stimulates muscles and liver to convert glucose to glycogen

20

Estrogen

  • Stimulates uterine lining
  • promotes development and maintenance of primary and secondary female characteristics

21

Oxytocin

Produced by hypothalamus

Secreted by posterior pituitary

Stimulates contractions of the uterus and mammary glands

22

Ovaries

  • Estrogen
  • Progesterone

23

Negative Feedback

  • Maintains homeostasis
  • ex/ body maintains thyroxin levels. WHen low, hypotalamus stimulates anterior pituitary to release a thyroid-stimulating hormoen to relase more thyroxin

24

Pancreas 

  • endocrine function centered in the islets of Langerhans
  • Insulin
  • Glucagon

25

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

  • Secreted by anterior pituitary
  • Stimulates ovaries and testes
  • Induces testes to mature by beginning to secrete testosterone
  • stimulates ovulation of the primary oocyte from the follicle

26

Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Secreted by anterior pituitary

Stimulates gonads to prodoce sperm and ova

27

Melatonin

Secreted by Pineal

Invloved in biorhythms

28

Andrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids

29

Feedback Mechanism

A self-regulating mechanism that increases/decreases an action or the level of a substance

30

Peptide Hormones

  • large, hydrophilic, charged
  • can't diffuse across the plasma membrane
  • Protein receptors they bind to are located on the cell suface
    • activates receptor and causes it to transmit a signal into the cell
    •  release secondary messengers(c-AMP) in the cell that amplify the signal and alter cell activities
  • produced as large inactive pro-hormones that are cleaved by proteases into smaller active peptides before released
  • stored in secretory vesicles in the cytoplasm waiting for signal to be dumped out into the blood
  • Can act quickly

31

Flight or Fight Response

  • Body's physical reactions to stress
  • epinephrine and norepinephrine increase heartbeat 
  • increase blood supply to skeletal muscle, heart, braine, while decrease supply to kidneys, skin ,digestive tract
  • elicited by sympathetic nervous stimulation

32

Epinephrine

  • Secreted by the adrenal medulla
  • fight-or-flight hormone
  • neurotranmitter

33

Thyroxin

  • A modifioed amino acid that contains 4 atoms of iodine
  • stimulates oxidative metabolism throughout body
  • Controls metabolic rate
  • Deficiency of thyroxin can cause:
    • Goiter(Swelling), decreased heart rate, lethargy, obesity, decreased mental alertness
  • too much can cause
    • Sweating, high body temp, inceased basal metabolic rate, high blood pressure, weight loss, irritability

34

Testes

  • Androgens

35

Mineralocorticoid

  • Secreted by adrenal cortex
  • ex/ aldosterone
  • regulte plama levels of sodium and potassium and extracellular water volume
  • causes active reabsorption of sodium and passive reabsorption of water in the kidney

36

Posterior Pituitary

  • Oxytocin
  • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

 

  • Direct extension of nervous tissue from hypothalamus

37

Thyroid

  • Thyroxin
  • Calcitonin

38

Positive feedback

  • Enhances an already existing response
  • ex/ Baby's head against uterine opening sensors cause contractions, which causes more contractions until baby is born

39

Prolactin

Secreted by Anterior pituitary

Responsible for milk production by the female mammary glands

40

Parathyroid

  • Parathormone

41

Signal Transduction Cascade

  • Indirect signaling by a hormone
  • releases secondary messengers in the cell that amplify the signal and alter cellular activites

42

Steroid Hormones

  • small, hydrophobic
  • most are derived from cholesterol(lipid)
  • can diffuse through cell membrane
  • bind to steroid hormone receptors after diffusion
  • the receptors enter the nucleus and bind to target regions in genes that regulate transcription, turning the genes on or off
  • changes in gene transcription and protein expression 
  • not stored after production
  • Take longer to produce aresponse

43

Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Secreted by anteriro pituitary

Stimulates thyroid gland to secrete its own hormone, thyroxine

44

Epinephrine; Nonepinephrine

  • Adrenaline; noradrenaline
  • neurotransmitters
  • Raises blood sugar level by increasing rate of glycogen breakdown into glucose by liver
  • increase basal metabolic rate
  • increase heart beat
  • increase blood supply to skeletal muscle, heart, and brain, while decreasing blood to the kidnesy, skin, digestive tract - "fight or flight response" 

45

Calcitonin

Secreted by Thyroid

Lowers blood calcium levels