Biological Correlates Flashcards Preview

Psych/Soc > Biological Correlates > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biological Correlates Deck (68):
1

General adaptation syndrome (GAS)

Body's stress response

- Alarm => Resistance => Exhaustion

2

Practice effects

Gains in score on retesting

3

fMRI

Measure brain activity by detecting associated changes in blood flow

- Uses magnetic fields and radio waves
- Does NOT measure glucose, only blood flow

4

Epigenetic mechanisms

- DNA methylation

- Histone modification

5

Proximal stimulus

Stimulus registered by sensory receptors

- Ex. pattern of light falling on retina

6

Distal stimulus

Provides info for proximal stimulus

- Ex. Shoe on floor

7

Absolute threshold

Lowest intensity of stimulus that can be sensed reliably

- Depends on emotions, importance
- Intensity level detected 50% of time

8

Difference threshold/just noticeable difference

Smallest difference that is sufficient for a change in a stimulus to be noticed

9

Weber's Law

Change required to meet difference threshold depends on value of original stimulus (Weber fraction)

10

Signal detection theory

How organism differentiates important signals from unimportant ones (noise)

- Comparison b/w false alarm and hit rate
- Hit rate > false alarms = high sensitivity
- Mediated by bias, has decision-making component

11

Place theory

Hear different pitches b/c different sound waves trigger activity at different places along cochlea's basilar membrane

12

Attention

Selects sensory info for perceptual processing

13

Selective attention

Focus on one stimulus at exclusion of other

14

Divided attention

Split perceptual resources b/w multiple stimuli

15

Shadowing

Repeating digits presented to a specific ear

16

Project image to a visual field and it will be represented in _____ hemisphere of brain

Opposite

17

Bottom-up processing

Construction of perceptions from individual pieces of information

18

Top-down processing

Brings influence of prior knowledge to make perception more efficient

- AKA context effects

19

Gestalt principles

Perception of surroundings as being made of distinct, stable objects

- Organizes sensory info into distinct forms (objects)
- Nearness, similarity, common region (background), continuity, closure

20

Interposition

Depth perception

21

Parallel processing

Use of multiple pathways to convey info about same stimulus

- Process multiple pieces of info about stimulus at same time
- Starts at level of bipolar and ganglion cells in eye => lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex

22

Feature detection

Sequential processing => provides basic info about feature of object

23

Circadian rhythm

Daily balance b/w wakefulness and sleep

24

Drive for sleep is opposed by biological clock of _____

SCN in hypothalamus

- Maintains homeostatic equilibrium
- Maintains drive for wakefulness by inhibiting release of melatonin by pineal gland
- Affected by light

25

Stage 1 sleep

Light sleep

- Alpha waves, more relaxed than beta waves

26

Stage 2 sleep

Bursts of brain wave activity that indicate full transition into sleep

- Sleep spindles

27

Stage 3 sleep

Transition to deep sleep

- Delta waves (much longer than alpha waves)

28

Stage 4 sleep

Deepest sleep

- All delta waves

29

Rapid eye movement (REM)

Period of high brain activity during stage 1

- Does not occur during first sleep cycle
- Brain relives stimuli from day and consolidates important info into memory
- Dreaming occurs here

30

Non-REM sleep

Largest portion of sleep

- Lower brain activity

31

Stimulants

Raise CNS activity

- Increase monoamine neurotransmitters (epinephrine, dopamine)

32

Reward pathway

Drugs increase levels of dopamine and reward feeling

- Nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, amygdala

33

Neuroleptics

First antipsychotic drugs used to treat schizophrenia

- Negative side effects = cognitive dulling

34

Atypical antipsychotics

Block dopamine receptors

- Less likely to have negative side effects than neuroleptics

35

First phase of memory formation

Sensory memory

- Temporary, unconscious

36

Second phase of memory formation

Short-term memory/working memory

- Auditory representation
- 7 ± 2 pieces of info

37

Techniques to maintain info in working memory

Chunking, rehearsal

38

Negative priming

Implicit memory effect where prior exposure to a stimulus unfavorably influences response to same stimulus

39

Priming

Change in response to stimulus due to subconscious memory effects

40

Flashbulb memory

Claim to remember detail of what you were doing when receiving news of emotionally arousing event

41

False memory

Given with high confidence

42

Neural plasticity

Ability of brain's networks of synapses and neurons to change

- Most apparent during early development

43

Long-term potentiation

Increase in likelihood that presynaptic input will trigger potential in postsynaptic neuron

44

Semantic networks

Used by long-term memory to organize info in networks of meaningfully related memories

- Leads to spreading activation

45

Decay

Fading of a memory

- Weakening of connections making up neural network

46

Serial-position effect

Primacy + recency effects

47

Interference

Prevents successful memory retrieval due to similar information

- Can be retroactive or proactive

48

Retroactive interference

Newly learned info that prevents successful retrieval of related older memories

49

Proactive interference

Previously held knowledge prevents successful retrieval of newly learned info

50

Source monitoring

Person attributes memory to particular source

51

Memory construction

Memories updated w/ new info = reactivates neural network

52

What two structures in body change in regards to aging and memory?

Hippocampus and prefrontal cortex

53

Semantic memory

General world knowledge we have accumulated throughout lives

- Type of explicit/declarative memory (along w episodic)

54

Episodic memory

Declarative info people have of specific experiences

55

Crystallized intelligence

Ability to use old/learned knowledge/experience

56

Fluid intelligence

Ability to solve new problems/adapt

57

Cognitive changes

Late adulthood

58

Source amnesia

Inability to remember how previously learned info has been aquired

59

Alzheimer's disease

Hippocampus = first to be affected

- Amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, cognitive dysfunction
- Particular dysfunction in tasks of verbal fluency and negative priming

60

Korsakoff's syndrome

Deficit in ability to recall events for newer memories

- Due to lack of vitamin B1 => damage to frontal cortex and thalamus

61

Parkinson's disease

Deterioration of substantia nigra

- Dopamine deficiency
- Impairment of motor abilities
- Substantia nigra can't function to initiate movement

62

Requirements for inferring causality

Correlation
Random assignment
Temporality

63

Symptoms of schizophrenia

Delusions
Hallucinations
Disorganized speech

64

Prevalence of schizophrenia

1%

65

Physiological aspects of schizophrenia

- High levels of dopamine

- Smaller structures in brain

66

Physiological process associated with depression

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA)

67

Opponent-process theory

Four cones are associated w/ process of color and they're grouped into two pairs (red-green and blue-yellow)

- Each group can be stimulated simultaneously
- Only one cone from each group can be activated at a given time

68

Concentrations of light sensitive chemicals in rods and cones _____ in dark environment

Increase => increase sensitivity of rods and cones when moving to dark