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Flashcards in Identity Deck (77):
1

Personality

Collection of lasting characteristics that makes a person unique

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Trait theory of personality

Personality consists of a set of traits (characteristics that vary b/w people and are stable over a lifetime regardless of environment)

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Biological theory of personality

Biological contributions to certain traits (genome)

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Heredity

Genetic inheritance

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Temperament

Innate, genetically influenced baseline of personality (modified by environment throughout life)

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Twin studies

Help separate effects of genetics and environment

Monozygotic twins have identical genomes
(Dizygotic twins are like regular siblings)

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Psychoanalytic theory (Freud)

Universal personality structure that contributes both to behavior and to differences b/w people

Internal processes that shape personality

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Id

Primitive, seeks instant gratification and to avoid pain

Doesn't care about morality or social norms

Present from birth

(Devil)

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Superego

Develops later in life through internalization of society's rules for moral behavior, interactions w/ caregivers

(Angel)

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Ego

Directs behavior/balances demands of id and superego

Forces delay of gratification of id's desire until socially acceptable method is found

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Behaviorist theory

Personality = due to series of learning experiences that occur through interactions b/w individual and environment

Environment shapes personality more than biology/psychology

External factors > internal factors

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Social cognitive theory

Learning experiences and observable behaviors

- Change behavior as a result of environmental factors

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Observational learning

Learn from experiences of others and apply lessons of previous experiences to new situations

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Reciprocal causation

Behavior, personal factors, and environment interact/influence each other

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Humanistic theory

People seek experiences that make them better, more fulfilled individuals

Individual shapes own personality

Conscious decisions (vs. impulses) make people who they are

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Situational approach to explaining behavior

Challenge to trait-based personality theories

Variation in behavior across different situations => concept of enduring personality traits is flawed

People behave according to interpretations of situations

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Mead's Components of Self - ME

Socialized aspect of person

Learned in interactions w/ others

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Mead's Components of Self - I

Active aspect of person

Acts creatively

Held in check by Me

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Identity

Person's view of who they are (perception of self)

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Self-concept

Knowledge of oneself as a person both separate from others and constant throughout changing situations

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Different types of identities

Race/ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation, class

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Imitation

Allows kids to view selves as similar to imitated person

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Role-taking

Adopting role of another person

Symbolic interaction

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Looking-glass self

Taking role of others lets you view yourself

Influenced by how we perceive that others are viewing us (if stigmatized => internalize stigmatization)

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Social comparison

Evaluating oneself by contrast with others

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Reference group

Model for appropriate actions, values, and worldviews

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Self-esteem

Overall judgement of self (levels out as you age)

High self-esteem = positive self-concept

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Self-efficacy

Feeling of being able to carry out an action successfully

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Locus of control

Belief about extent to which internal/external factors play role in shaping life

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Internal locus of control

I have complete control over behavior/events

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External locus of control

External factors decide behavior/events

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Freud's theory of developmental stages

Sequential series of psychosexual stages in early childhood

(In terms of impulses of id)

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Fixation

Permanent aspect of personality related to urge

Due to child getting too much/little satisfaction of urge at particular stage => fail to move on to next stage

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Oral stage (Freud)

Infancy

Oral processes (sucking/biting)

Successful weaning => trust and capacity for delayed gratification

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Anal stage (Freud)

Conflict b/w child and parents

Child wants to control bowel movements while parents impose toilet-training

Successful => self-control

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Phallic stage (Freud)

Sexual impulses on opposite sex parent

Identify w/ same sex parent

Internalize society's rules and develop superego

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Latent period (Freud)

Suppressed sexual impulses

Focus on other developmental tasks

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Genital stage (Freud)

Adolescence

Return of sexual urges => adult sexuality

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Erikson theory of development (identity)

Interaction b/w self and society experienced across lifespan

Each stage = crisis that must be resolved

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Erikson Stage 1

Trust vs. mistrust

First year of life

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Erikson Stage 2

Autonomy vs. shame and doubt

Child's growing sense of whether he/she is competent to carry out self-care

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Erikson Stage 3

Initiative vs. guilt

Attempt to develop ability to execute plan

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Erikson Stage 4

Industry vs. inferiority

Complex social environment of school

Views self as capable of mastering societally valued skills or not

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Erikson Stage 5

Identity vs. role confusion

Explore different possibilities for role in society

Personal beliefs and goals

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Erikson Stage 6

Intimacy vs. isolation

Young adulthood

Ability to form emotionally significant relationships with others

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Erikson Stage 7

Generativity vs. stagnation

Middle adulthood

Determine extent to which they want to "put back" energy into work/family or just care for selves

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Erikson Stage 8

Integrity vs despair

Old age => evaluate lifetime

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Identity achievement

Strong sense of identity

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Identity foreclosure

Failed to have identity crisis, but adopted identity of others

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Identity moratorium

Midst of identity crisis, active

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Identity diffusion

No sense of identity or motivation to engage in identity exploration

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Vygotsky theory of development

Sociocultural - learning through interactions w/ others => promotes acquisition of culturally valued behaviors/beliefs

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Zone of proximal development

Range of activities b/w current and potential developmental levels (Vygotsky)

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Kohlberg's theory of moral development

Developing kids have predictable sequence of stages of moral reasoning

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Preconventional level

Moral judgements based only on consequences

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Conventional level

Moral judgements based on opinions of others

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Postconventional level

Own belief of right and wrong beyond consequences/disapproval of others

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Sensitive period

Point in early development that can have significant influence on physiological/behavioral functioning later on

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Insecure attachment

Individuals have negative/unpredictable experiences w/ caregiver

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Attribution theory

Conclusions drawn about causes that explain observed behavior of others

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Dispositional attribution

Attributing cause of behavior to inherent quality/desire

Assign internal locus of control to other person

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Situational attribution

Attributing cause of behavior to environmental forces

Assign external locus of control

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Fundamental attribution error

Inherent constraints on our ability to accurately judge causes of behaviors

Automatically favor dispositional attributions over situational ones

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Self-serving bias

Tendency to attribute one's success to internal factors

Attribute failures to external factors

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How culture affects attributions

Western viewpoint sees individual as central to events

Eastern viewpoint pays more attention to situational factors

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Psychological disorders

Sets of psychological abnormalities that are maladaptive to the individual

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Somatic symptom and related disorders

Characterized by bodily symptoms along with associated psychological symptoms

Pain, fatigue, motor impairment

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Anxiety disorders

Unwarranted fear and anxiety, physiological tension

Response to stress

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Stress

Excessive SNS activation in absence of threat

Body prepares for fight/flight situation

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Mood disorders

Disruptions in emotions that influence personal functioning

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Depression

Extreme depressive mood disorder

Pervasive feelings of sadness/hopelessness, loss of interest in activities

Elevated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hormones, deficient monoamine neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine)

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Schizophrenia

Impaired connection with reality

Symptoms = hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech

Elevated dopamine, brain structural abnormalities

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Dissociative disorders

Split b/w different aspects of cognitive functioning

Disruption in identity, memory, or consciousness

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Dissociative amnesia

Forget about past events

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Negative symptom

Loss of something (psychological function, memory)

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Positive symptom

Abnormal disruptive experience (hallucinations)

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Personality disorders

Some aspect of personality = psychologically unhealthy for individual

Endure across different situations and over a lifetime